Skip to main content
Dreams of Black Wall Street

Dreams of Black Wall Street

By Nia Clark
A look back in history at a time of great promise and great disappointment for Black Americans who dreamed of and struggled for the promise of community and full citizenship.
Listen on
Where to listen
Apple Podcasts Logo

Apple Podcasts

Breaker Logo

Breaker

Castbox Logo

Castbox

Google Podcasts Logo

Google Podcasts

Overcast Logo

Overcast

Pocket Casts Logo

Pocket Casts

RadioPublic Logo

RadioPublic

Spotify Logo

Spotify

Currently playing episode

S1 E15: Season Finale - Tulsa's Story

Dreams of Black Wall Street

1x
S2 E7 Rosewood: The Community
Like atrocities of a similar nature, the tragedy of the Rosewood Massacre draws attention to the community of Rosewood. It makes us take notice. But once that attention is fixed on these communities, we begin to discover worlds that many of us had little to no knowledge of previously. Too often, the stories of these worlds have been hidden or distorted and the narrative. They've been controlled by people who have very little connection to or understanding about them. Yet, so much of our world today exists because of the worlds of our past. Similarly, Rosewood was far more than another Black community that was massacred. It was a world of real people, with names, and lives, hopes and dreams, problems, pain and fear. Although those who destroyed Rosewood tried to erase every sign of Black life, Rosewood's legacy lives on. However, the fact is, far too few people have any knowledge of what kind of community Rosewood really was before it was destroyed. Most of those who are familiar with Rosewood are only familiar with the massacre of Rosewood. This episode explores Rosewood as a community beginning from the days when it was first settled. Guests in this episode include historian and archivist, Sherry Sherrod DuPree of the Rosewood Heritage Foundation as well as archeologist and University of Florida lecturer, Dr. Edward Gonzalez-Tennant. Musical attributions 1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows 2. Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170 3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
50:48
December 31, 2020
S2 E6 Perry, FL: One Month Before the Rosewood Massacre
Throughout much of the 20th century, Florida had been a Ku Klux Klan stronghold. Klansmen found friends in government who occupied offices on local, state and federal offices. By 1925 the Klan had about 3 million members nationwide. Three years later, their ranks began to shrink. In Florida, however, the Klan grew. Their strongest factions could be found in Miami, Jacksonville, Tampa and Orlando. Members of the Ku Klux Klan were often responsible for lynchings. From 1900 to 1930, Florida had the highest ratio of lynchings per capita (per capita being the average per person). Some scholars believe that, "Black men were more at risk of being lynched in Florida than any other state” and viewed Florida as a lynching capital. Lynching was not only a tool of terror and control - but also a response to the changing landscape of the country. Such was the case in a community not far from Rosewood called Perry Florida, where an attack eerily similar in nature took place just one month before the community of Rosewood perished at the hands of a mob similar to those who terrorized Perry. The attack could be viewed as a foreshadowing of what was to come at the start of the New Year in 1923. However, as Florida State University Professor, Meghan Martinez explains, such incidents were unfortunately much more common and than most people understand. They had become woven into the daily realities of Black Americans and minorities in Florida in the early 1900’s.  Listeners will also hear recordings of a talk given by Dr. Paul Ortiz. Professor Ortiz is the director of the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at the University of Florida. He is also the author of a number of books, including Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920. Professor Ortiz teaches undergraduate courses and supervises graduate fields. Musical attributions 1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows 2. Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170 3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
53:47
December 17, 2020
Ep 5 Eatonville, FL: One of America's first incorporated all-Black towns Endures Before and After Rosewood
Michigan state University English Professor, Julian Chambliss, explains that the idea of town or community creation is not an exception for African Americans. The idea of creating ones own community because one isn’t able to get a fair shake was actually a common response to conditions such as the end of Slavery, the end of Reconstruction and the rise of Jim Crow. It was also one of the ways African Americans sought to carve out a path to the rights one enjoys as a full citizen of the United States such as voting, free and fair civic engagement, land ownership, the opportunity to prosper and education. A good example of this philosophy is the town of Eatonville, Florida. Eatonville is known as one of the first - and some would argue it is the first - incorporated all-Black town in the United States. Like Ocoee, Florida, which was explored in the previous two episodes, it is located in Orange County.    Eatonville represents what is possible when - despite great odds - a community pools its resources, leans on informal safety nets such as faith and strong communal ties, musters a sense of resilience that is only possible after enduring generations of hardship and shares a collective dream of a better tomorrow. It was founded at a time when it was difficult for Black Americans to acquire land because many southern land owners refused to sell to them. However, an African American man named Joseph Clarke envisioned an all black town and was determined to make it happen. He discussed the idea with two white former Republican Union officers named Captain Eaton and Captain Lawrence, who both supported the idea. Eaton and Lawrence were invested in the idea of moral capitalism and believed that helping Blacks to purchase their own land and manage their own community could be a mutually beneficial allyship. This is how Joseph Clark and 26 other African American men were able to come into possession of the land they needed to found Eatonville. What is unique about Eatonville, is that it is one of a small number of all-black towns or settlements formed after the Civil War that still exists today. Throughout this time, it continued to exist in the Jim Crow south and beyond without disruption by violent race-based assaults such as those experienced in Ocoee, Perry and Rosewood, Florida. This is one of the reasons that African Americans in Eatonville were able to prosper in its early years and why they enjoyed a sense of freedom and security many other African American communities in Florida at the time did not.      Guests in this episode include N.Y. Nathiri is an Executive Director for the Association to Preserve Eatonville Community as well as Michigan State University English Professor Julian Chambliss. Chambliss also has an appointment in History and the Val Berryman Curator of History at the MSU Museum at Michigan State University. In addition, he is a core participant in the MSU College of Arts & Letters’ Consortium for Critical Diversity in a Digital Age Research (CEDAR).    Musical attributions  1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows  2. Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170  3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
1:09:20
November 30, 2020
S2 E4: 3 Years Before Rosewood - the Deadliest Election Day in US History (Part 2)
A continuation of the exploration of the 1920 Ocoee Massacre. The Ocoee Massacre occurred three years before the Rosewood Massacre and followed a massive Black voter registration and get-out-the-vote movement in Florida. The movement was perceived as a threat to those who wished to keep Black Americans subjugated and as a result, many Black Americans who participated in the movement, who voted or attempted to vote, were targeted in violent attacks. Adding to the tensions was the enfranchisement of women as they gained the right to vote the same year that the Ocoee Massacre occurred, which potentially increased the number of people who could vote against one-party rule in Florida and those who attempted and ultimately succeeded in quashing the Black voter movement.  Understanding the Black experience in Florida sheds light on how tragedies such as the Rosewood Massacre or the Ocoee Massacre could occur without any form of justice or recourse for the victims. Events such as the Ocoee and Rosewood Massacres were a product of the sociopolitical and economic conditions born out of racial hatred that created the space for the Massacres to occur.  Attacks on Blacks and Black communities prior to the Rosewood Massacre served as stress tests that gauged the boundaries intended to keep those conditions in check. Each racially motivated act of violence that victimized Black people and minorities that went unpunished, pushed those boundaries further and further apart while providing a wider opening for those conditions to take their place. The cause of the Rosewood Massacre is summed up in a nearly 100 page report following a state commissioned study, which characterized it as a "a tragedy of American democracy and the American legal system." In other words. Democracy and the American legal system failed the Rosewood victims. An analysis of the Ocoee Massacre in relation to the Rosewood Massacre in this context illuminates how widespread that failure of democracy and justice was for Black people at the time. In other words the Rosewood Massacre could occur - in part - because of the ability of the perpetrators of the Ocoee Massacre and dozens of other attacks on African Americans and Black communities to carry out those acts of terror with impunity. Guests in this episode include several descendants of Ocoee Massacre victim, July Perry: Sha’ron Cooley Mcwhite, Gladys Betty Franks Bell as well as her brother, Aaron Franks. Listeners will also hear from Michigan State University English Professor Julian Chambliss. Chambliss also has an appointment in History and the Val Berryman Curator of History at the MSU Museum at Michigan State University. In addition, he is a core participant in the MSU College of Arts & Letters’ Consortium for Critical Diversity in a Digital Age Research (CEDAR). Musical attributions 1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows 2. 2 Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170 3. 3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
55:18
November 16, 2020
S2 E3 3 Years Before the Rosewood Massacre: the Deadliest Election Day in U.S. History
Exactly 100 years ago, what is known as the bloodiest election day in American history left a grave and everlasting stain on Florida’s history. On Election Day 1920, a number of Black residents who lived in the town of Ocoee, Florida attempted to vote and were turned away. They included a man named Moses Norman who became very angry. Norman was one of the most prosperous Black men in the Orange County community. Some accounts suggest that Norman went to the home of his friend July Perry - another prominent Black entrepreneur in town, to tell Perry what happened. That evening, a mob of armed white men came to Perry’s home in search of Norman. Shooting broke out. Perry was captured and lynched. The mob turned its ire on Ocoee’s Black population. An unknown number of innocent African Americans were targeted and killed. Their homes and property were set on fire before burning to the ground. Most African Americans fled Ocoee and never to return. However, Ocoee is not the only place blood was spilled in Florida on Election Day of 1920. Beginning in 1919, a massive voter registration drive aimed at politically enfranchising Florida’s black community was underway. Many Blacks had planned to reap the fruits of their labor by casting their ballots on November 2nd of that year. Eventually, the voter registration movement spread to more than half of Florida's counties. Democrats - and particularly the Ku Klux Klan, became alarmed and viewed the movement as a threat to white supremacy in the south and launched their own repressive tactics to thwart the movement. That didn't stop thousands of African Americans from attempting to vote on November of that  Hundreds were turned away from the polls. Aside from Ocoee African Americans in Gadsden, Manatee and Liberty counties. In this episode, guests will hear an account of the Ocoee Massacre given by The Orlando Guy. Pamela Schwartz, Chief Curator of the Orange County Regional History Center will lend her expertise to help fill in some missing pieces to the puzzle of that tragic day. Musical attributions 1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows 2 Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170 3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
55:39
November 2, 2020
S2 E2: Road to Rosewood
The predominantly African American Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was not the only so-called Black Wall Street in the early part of the 20th century.   There were a number of thriving Black communities in the early 1900’s. Some were also known by the moniker, Black Wall Street. These were communities that were very much made up of working people, which some say resembled middle-class prosperity. Some of America’s firs Black millionaires called these communities home. Though it was not uncommon to find Black Americans of different classes or income levels living in these communities together.  Nevertheless, creating such communities was no small feat for African Americans of this time. Segregation, Jim Crow, racism and corruption made it next too impossible for many black Americans to pull themselves out of poverty. Not to mention slavery was only abolished several decades prior. These communities began to take shape as the Black Americans became more politically engaged and economically mobile as a result of Reconstruction. However, an aggressive and often violent backlash to the improvement of the conditions of African Americans began to take hold in parts of the country, particularly the South. Unfortunately, wealthy, well-off, financially advantaged African Americans during this time often had targets on their backs. And because of that, many of these thriving black communities were destroyed and many people in them were killed. One of these communities includes the once-primarily Black, self-sufficient town of Rosewood Florida. What happened in Rosewood was a symptom of larger trends happening across the country, including but not limited to: the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan; a systemic effort to undo the gains Black people made as a result of Reconstruction through policy, discrimination and other aggressive measures; a rise in lynchings and massacres of Black communities; backlash against Black veterans who had recently returned from World War 1; the formation and growth of Black resistance to power structures; and efforts of Black Americans to assert their voting rights, the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote. Guests in this episode include Dr. Nashid Madyun who is the director of the Meek-Eaton Southeastern Regional Black Archives Research Center and Museum on FAMU’s campus. Madyun is also a distinguished publisher and researcher. Listeners will also hear recordings of a talk given by Dr. Paul Ortiz. Professor Ortiz is the director of the Samuel Proctor Oral History Program at the University of Florida. He is also the author of a number of books, including Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden History of Black Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction to the Bloody Election of 1920. Professor Ortiz teaches undergraduate courses and supervises graduate fields.  Musical attributions  1. Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows  2 Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170  3. Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1  
1:06:44
October 31, 2020
S2 E1 290 Years Before the Rosewood Massacre
In order to understand how an incident such as the Rosewood Massacre could occur, it is important to understand the history of Africans and African Americans in Florida. In this episode St. Augustine Historical Society and University of North Florida Historian, Dr. Susan Parker, tackles the accuracy of how this history has been told by pointing out that, contrary to the popular belief that the year 1619 is the beginning of slavery in the what we know today as the U.S., as early as May 1616, blacks from the West Indies were working in Bermuda on the production of tobacco. Evidence suggests that scores of stolen Africans from the Spanish were aboard a fleet commanded by of Sir Francis Drake when he arrived at Roanoke Island in 1586. In 1526, enslaved Africans were part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost on the North American coast in present-day South Carolina. Dr. Susan Parker explains that this outpost was a short-lived Spanish settlement known as San Miguel de Gualdape lead by Lucas Vazquez de Ayllon located probably on Sapelo Island, Ga., (near Darien). Dr. Parker takes a deep dive into the colonial history of Florida that was once under the ruled of Spain, France and Great Britain before becoming a territory of the U.S. in 1821. The treatment of Africans slaves and African American slaves varied by each colonial ruler. Nevertheless, Live as a slave in Florida was a brutal existence. Florida was the third state to secede from the Union and joined the South in a bid to form a slave republic. After the Union won the Civil War and slavery was abolished and Reconstruction ended, legislation was enacted to chip away at the gains African Americans made while Jim Crow acted as a form of terror and control that aimed to maintain the racial, social, political and economic norms established under slavery.  In this episode, listeners will also hear from a descendant of Rosewood Survivors, Angela Goins as well as Sherry Sherrod DuPree. Mrs. DuPree has worked with the Rosewood Heritage Foundation for many years. She is an author, historian, archivist as well as a former instructor and librarian at the University of Florida and Santa Fe College. Musical attributions 1.  Artist/Title: Axletree - Window Sparrows  Licenses: Attribution 4.0 International URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Axletree/Ornamental_EP/Window_Sparrows 2 Artist/Title: Lobo Loco - Place on my Bonfire (ID 1170) Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Adventure/Place_on_my_Bonfire_ID_1170 3.  Artist/Title: Youssoupha Sidibe - Xaleyi  Licenses: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 US) URL: https://freemusicarchive.org/genre/Country?pageSize=20&page=1&sort=artist&d=1
53:06
October 31, 2020
S2 Rosewood Introduction
An overview of this podcast and this season. Dreams of Black Wall Street examines the course of once-thriving predominantly Black communities that are both known by the moniker, Black Wall Street, as well as those that fit such a description. This was a period in which African Americans - only several generations removed from slavery - were on a quest for community and the promise of full citizenship. The right to be both politically engaged and at the very least try their hand at supporting themselves and their families while maintaining the right to seek out the proper means to do so. These communities are used as a glimpse into the Black experience of America during this era. While season 1 focused on the Tulsa Race Massacre in which the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Ok was destroyed, season 2 will focus on the once-primarily Black, rural, self-sufficient town of Rosewood, Florida. Rosewood was a bright spot of Black independence in Levy County Florida, that existed amid the dark shadows of the Jim Crow South. During the first week of January 1923, Rosewood became the site of a racially motivated massacre of a number of the town’s African American residents and the destruction of the rural hamlet. Accounts of the death toll vary, ranging between less than 10 people to more than 100. At the time, like incidents of a similar nature, the Rosewood Massacre was characterized as a race riot. Florida - and other parts of the country, especially the South, had been experiencing a particularly large number of lynchings of black men in the years leading up to the massacre. However, this isn’t just a story about the destruction of another Black community. It’s also about the decades long road to compensation. A long, complicated road fraught with emotional highs and lows that resulted in just a sliver of repayment for all that was lost in that tragedy.
06:09
October 31, 2020
S1 E15: Season Finale - Tulsa's Story
For decades, a number of scholars and experts have been at the forefront of efforts to tell the story of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre. During this time the tragedy remained largely unknown among most Americans. In recent years however, great strides have been made in the effort to bring more attention to the event and help those who would listen understand that the Massacre is emblematic of the Black experience in America at the time and is as much a part of American history as any other major national, historical event.  Much of what is known about the Massacre is due in part to the testimonies and eye witness accounts of Tulsa Race Massacre survivors and their family members. Hundreds of interviews detailing these accounts exist in large part because of the efforts of educator, historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates who recorded their experiences in the 1990’s and early 2000’s. Many of these accounts and recordings have been made available to feature on this podcast thanks to the generosity of experts on the subject matter who have been documenting this history for years, including those who have worked with Mrs. Gates.  While this podcast tells the story of the events surrounding the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, the story of the tragedy is still being written, in part by those who are invested in revitalizing the the district of Greenwood in the hopes that it might one day resemble some semblance of the thriving community once known as Black Wall Street.  Guests in this episode include Chair of the Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission, Oklahoma State Senator Kevin Matthews. Listeners will also hear recordings of a number of Tulsa Race Massacre survivors as well as educator, historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates.  Musical Attributions  1.Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994  2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563  3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819  4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon  
1:02:21
August 13, 2020
S1 E14 The Legacy of Black Wall Street
In the nearly 100 In the years since the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre, Tulsa, particularly the Greenwood District, has undergone a considerable and slow transformation. Although Greenwood, experienced a regeneration between the 1920’s and 1950’s after the community was rebuilt following the Tulsa Race Massacre, that economic boom did not last. When legal segregation began to be dismantled in the 1950’s, blacks in Greenwood had more freedom to choose how and where they spent their money and many of them spent it outside of the community. Thus began Greenwood’s economic decline. This was exacerbated by several other factors, including redlining - practices that deny residents of certain areas services based on their race or ethnicity, as well as urban renewal - a set of federally financed policies aimed at rehabilitating cities of a city plagued by economic decline, which sometimes cause harm to residents in the targeted areas. Examples include the denial of mortgage loans, insurance and other financial services. This often occurs in minority communities. These factors along with others, have left many parts of present-day Greenwood in a state of economic despair. The city is still very much segregated.  The lack of opportunities for upward mobility many black Tulsans currently face has resulted in many African Americans in Tulsa experiencing a far lower quality of life and fewer opportunities, including the opportunity to own a home. Additionally, many Tulsans of various backgrounds believe that race relations continue to be strained. As a result a number of Tulsans with expertise in various fields are working to improve these areas of their community. Guests in this episode include Greenwood Cultural Center Program Coordinator & Tour Guide, Mechelle Brown, as well as preacher and home builder, Greg Taylor. Resources: 1. https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=TU013 2. https://www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre/ 3. https://www.tulsa2021.org/ Musical Attributions 1.Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2.2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3.3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4.4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon    
1:01:35
July 29, 2020
S1 E13 Where Are The Bodies Buried?
A significant number of African American residents of Tulsa’s predominantly black Greenwood District disappeared during and after the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre. Some researchers and experts believe there could be hundreds of the missing residents. These were people who not only had never been heard from again but whose bodies could not be located after the Massacre. Many loved ones presumed missing black Tulsans had been killed during the attack on Greenwood.  Though they never had a chance to lay the missing to rest. For decades, experts have tried to solve the mystery of the missing bodies.  The answer could be in survivor accounts and family lore - that for nearly 100 years - told of large numbers of bodies being buried or dumped in mass graves in and around Tulsa following the Massacre. On the other hand, some witnesses reported seeing black corpses hauled to the banks of and dumped in the Arkansas River. Experts who were hired to unearth evidence of - if not the graves themselves more than 20 years ago - encountered road blocks that made their efforts unsuccessful. However, the current mayor of Tulsa, Mayor G.T. Bynum, has launched renewed efforts to discover possible mass graves stemming from the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre. Guests in this episode include Kavin Ross of the Greenwood Tribune, who is also the son of former Oklahoma State Representative Don Ross; Dr. Scott Ellsworth who is a writer, historian and University of Michigan Afroamerican and African Studies professor; and Dr. Alicia Odewale who is a University of Tulsa Anthropology associate professor. Listeners will also hear from Representative Ross as well as Tulsa Race Massacre survivor and long-time educator William Danforth Williams, also known as W.D. Williams.   Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994  2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563  3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819  4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
45:32
July 15, 2020
S1 E12: "Tulsa's Terrible Secret" and the Erasure of Black History
Up until the later part of the 20th century, there were sustained and concerted efforts to suppress the full truth of the Tulsa Race Riot, which is now acknowledged as the Tulsa Race Massacre. In the decades that followed, the attack was treated as taboo by both whites and blacks, by residents of Tulsa and government officials, by survivors of the massacre and their descendants. If it was addressed, often times the facts and circumstances surrounding the massacre were misconstrued and in many cases fabricated. Some descendants of survivors have said it was a matter of protecting future generations from enduring a similar tragedy. Others have said it was considered a black mark of shame for Tulsa and few perpetrators wanted to actually accept responsibility for such an event.  Dr. Scott Ellsworth - professor of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan and author of Death in a Promised Land, said quote, “The people who brought it up were threatened with their jobs; they were threatened with their lives.” The suppression of the Tulsa Race Massacre is emblematic of the frequency with which the erasure of black life and anything associated with it took place in the early part of the 20th century. In this episode, Journalist, Nia Clark, interviews Texas journalist, writer and author of The Burning: Massacre, Destruction, and the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, Tim Madigan as well as Shomari Wills, journalist and author of Black Fortunes: The Story of the First Six African Americans Who Escaped Slavery and Became Millionaires. Listeners will also hear an audio recording of one of Tulsa's most legendary musicians, Clarence Love.    Musical Attribution: 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
1:05:32
July 1, 2020
S1 E11: Black Wall Street Reborn
While some African American survivors of the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre left Greenwood for good, surprisingly, many stayed even though most returned home to ashes. However, of the black Tulsans who decided to remain in their community and rebuild, most had virtually none of the advantages that they had when Black Wall Street was first developed. For example, after the Massacre, black Tulsans had very little to zero assets; little to no access to previously advantageous streams of income; their insular economy was ground to a halt because their community was destroyed, preventing them from immediately generating income. The larger economy of Tulsa in general was ground to a halt as well for several days following the massacre. Additionally, many black Tulsans had incurred more debt with fewer and less expeditious ways of paying it off. Many had also lost loved ones in the Massacre, which not only meant the loss of invaluable life but it also meant the loss of another contributor to household responsibilities or income. Finally, many black Tulsans had little to no ability to seek support from nearby relatives or friends as most of their neighbors were also experiencing similar hardships. Nevertheless, not only did black Tulsans reconstruct Black Wall Street, over time the second version became more prosperous than the first. This was a testament to the resilient, tenacious nature of the community.  In this episode, Multimedia Journalist, Nia Clark, interviews attorney, author and consultant, Hannibal B. Johnson. Listeners will also hear from longtime Tulsa community leader, Jeanne B. Goodwin, who began living in Tulsa in the late 1920's at the beginning of its regeneration.  Musical Attributions  1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994  2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563  3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819  4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
39:22
June 17, 2020
S1 E10 Justice Delayed Is Justice Denied
Despite thousands of potential perpetrators of numerous crimes and potentially hundreds or thousands of witnesses to these crimes, law enforcement officials did not pursue any of them with any real vigor in search of the truth. As a result the victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre never got their justice.  The life of one of the victims of the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 is an example of the consequences of these actions - or lack thereof by law enforcement officials in Tulsa and Oklahoma. That man, born John the Baptist Stradford, was born a slave in Kentucky. Stradford was a graduate of Oberlin College and Indiana Law School. The J. B. Stradford family moved to Tulsa, OK, in 1899. J. B. became one of the richest African American's in Tulsa. Stradford became known as one of the pioneers of Tulsa. He owned the Stratford Hotel located at 301 North Greenwood. Following the Tulsa Race Massacre, Stradford was one of the few people charged in connection with the attack. He ultimately fled Tulsa and moved to Chicago where his son was living and working as an attorney. He lost just about everything he had in the Massacre. Although he owned several businesses in Chicago, he never amassed the amount of wealth he had in Tulsa. Additionally, the charge hung over him for the rest of his life. In 1996 Stradford was posthumously cleared of the charge of rioting thanks to years long efforts by his descendants.  In this episode listeners will hear from J.B. Stradford's great-great-granddaughter, Laurel Stradford as well as his great-great grandson, Nate Calloway. Listeners will also hear from Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting A Massacre, Randy Krehbiel.  Musical Attributions  1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994  2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563  3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819  4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon  
53:41
June 5, 2020
S1 E9: Ashes And The Fight For Greenwood
Over the last nearly 100 years, there has been speculation about whether or not the Tulsa Race Massacre was a planned attempt to launch an attack on Tulsa's Greenwood district. While there is no direct evidence of this, experts point to why this claim may or may not have any validity. Additionally, following the Tulsa Race Massacre there were concerted efforts to push African American property owners off of the land that they owned, on which mostly ashes sat. On June 2, 1921 - a day after the attack on Greenwood ended, representatives from the local Real Estate Exchange in Tulsa (which later became today's Realtors' Association, made a proposal to the Public Welfare Board: relocate Greenwood's black residents and turn parts of the burned district of what some referred to as "Little Africa" into a "wholesale industrial site." On Tuesday June 7th, the Tulsa City Commission took steps to guarantee that Greenwood would not be rebuilt. At the directive of the Real Estate Exchange, the body voted 4-0 to extend the city's fire code to all of the burned district south of the Sunset Hill brick plant and Haskell Street, making it nearly rebuilding "The Negro Wall Street" impossibly expensive for blacks in Tulsa.  These efforts ultimately failed due - in part - to a group of African American attorney B.C. Franklin who went to the Oklahoma Supreme Court to argue against a law that would allow African Americans in Greenwood to be stripped of their land. In this episode listeners will hear from Tulsa Race Massacre survivor Olivia J. Hooker. Featured guests include:  Reuben Gant, Executive Director of the John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation. Attorney and consultant, Hannibal B. Johnson, who is also the author of a number of books, including Black Wall Street. Randy Krehbiel - Tulsa World Reporter and author of several books, including Tulsa 1921: Reporting A Massacre. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
37:56
May 27, 2020
S1 E8: When the Smoke Cleared
When the mayhem ceased, and the smoke cleared, Black Wall Street laid almost completely flattened. In less than 24 hours, according to a Red Cross estimate, more than 1,200 houses were burned; 215 others were looted but not torched. Two newspapers, a library, a school, stores, hotels, churches and many other black-owned businesses were among the buildings damaged or destroyed by fire. Historians now believe an estimated 300 people were killed, according to the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum - although the official number of fatalities is much lower. The vast majority of the city’s black residents were left homeless. In the days, weeks and months to come, Tulsa's African American population would endure more suffering and heartache in their attempts to recover and rebuild their lives. In this episode listeners will hear an account of the Massacre and life after the Massacre from That was Tulsa Race Massacre survivor, Dr. Olivia J. Hooker. after surviving the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921, Hooker, went on to become the first black woman to enlist in the Coast Guard before becoming a distinguished psychologist and later a psychology professor at Fordham University. Listeners will also hear part of the 2018 award winning documentary called Maurice Willows: Unsung Hero of the 1921 Tulsa Race Riot, which was created by Seaman High School student Natalie Ford with the assistance of teachers, Susan Sittenauer and Nate McAlister.  The documentary explores the story of Maurice Willows, Red Cross Director of Relief at the time of the Tulsa Race Massacre who worked tirelessly for months to provide aid to the victims of the attack. The film is part of the Lowell Milken Center for Unsung Heroes. Featured guests in this episode include: -Randy Krehbiel, Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre, who gives a detailed account of the aftermath of the Tulsa Race Massacre. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
51:30
May 6, 2020
S1 E7: BONUS EPISODE: A Black Wall Street Legend - Peg Leg Taylor and the Legacy of Trauma
According to A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921, “Not all black Tulsans, however, countenanced surrender. In the final burst of fighting off of Standpipe Hill that morning, a deadly firefight erupted at the site of an old clay pit, where several African American defenders were said to have gone to their deaths fighting off the white invaders. Stories also have been passed down over the years regarding the exploits of Peg Leg Taylor, a legendary black defender who is said to have single-handedly fought off more than a dozen white rioters.” It goes on to say that rioters who were posted along the northern face of Sunset Hill are said to have found themselves under attack, at least for some time. Despite the efforts of some such as Taylor, Tulsa’s African American contingent was outgunned and outnumbered. Nevertheless, the story of Peg Leg Taylor has become the stuff of myth and legend. Various accounts about his efforts and what became of him have carried on through the years, including one account that posits that Taylor died defending Standpipe Hill. As it turns out, Peg Leg Taylor did not die in the Tulsa Race Massacre. He escaped and lived about 30 more years or so. He also had a daughter who escaped with him. In this episode listeners will hear from two sisters, Kim Johnson and Alice Campbell, who live in Seattle, where Peg Leg Taylor’s daughter lived. They say they are direct descendants of Taylor and his daughter, Eloise. One sister has been trying to tell their story for years. Her journey started after receiving a phone call from Dr. Scott Ellsworth, a Tulsa Native, writer historian and University of Michigan Afroamerican and African Studies professor. Listeners will also hear from Ellsworth in this episode. Finally ,the episode also features recordings of the late Bishop Otis G. Clark, who was a Tulsa Race Massacre Survivor and Evangelist and is said to have known Taylor. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
55:14
April 22, 2020
S1 E6: Black Wall Street Burning (Part 2) - A Descendants Story
The episode is Part 2 of a deep dive into the Tulsa Race Massacre, which occurred between May 31st and June 1st of 1921. Hundreds of people are believed to have been killed. Thousands were left homeless. And the Greenwood district of Tulsa, Oklahoma - also known as Black Wall Street - was completely destroyed. Some witnesses and survivors reported seeing and hearing bombs dropped on the community of Greenwood or Black Wall Street. Some experts believe they were turpentine bombs. One of the most prominent people to be killed during the massacre was Dr. A.C. Jackson - a black surgeon who lived in Greenwood. He was called the most able Negro surgeon in America by the Mayo brothers (who founded the world renowned Mayo Clinic), and transcended the color line, servicing both white and “Colored” patients. The Massacre of Black Wall Street did not just impact those who were victims. It also impacted their families as well as their descendants. Brenda Nails Alford shares her experience of learning about her own family's involvement later in life. Multimedia Journalist and TV Reporter, Nia Clark, interviews: Dr. Scott Ellsworth, writer, historian and professor in the Department of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan. Listeners will also hear an audio recordings of interview of Tulsa Race Massacre survivor Wilhelmina G. Howell who was also the niece of Dr. A.C. Jackson.  Finally, listeners will hear from Virginia Waters Poulton, who lived in Tulsa during the Tulsa Race Massacre and describes her parents attempts to save an African American domestic employee who worked for her family. A special thanks to the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum for allowing the use of their archival audio recording in this episode. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
31:13
April 8, 2020
S1 Black Wall Street 1921 Mid Series Recap
A recap of everything covered in episodes 1-6. Between May 31st and June 1st of 1921, what the Oklahoma Historical Society calls quote, "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history," claimed the lives of potentially hundreds of people and left an entire community in Tulsa, Oklahoma completely decimated.  That community, known as Greenwood - an African American district in North Tulsa, suffered a brutal attack by a white mob, which resulted in a horrific scene of chaos, destruction and bloodshed. The area, with a population of about 10,000 at the time, according to the historical society, had been considered one of the most affluent African American communities in the United States for the early part of the 20th century. For that reason it earned the name Black Wall Street. When the mayhem ceased, and the smoke cleared, Black Wall Street laid almost completely flattened. In less than 24 hours, according to a Red Cross estimate, more than 1,200 houses were burned; 215 others were looted but not torched. Two newspapers, a library, a school, stores, hotels, churches and many other black-owned businesses were among the buildings damaged or destroyed by fire. Historians now believe an estimated 300 people were killed during the attack.
05:11
April 1, 2020
S1 E6: Black Wall Street Burning
Between May 31st and June 1st of 1921, what the Oklahoma Historical Society calls quote, "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history," claimed the lives of potentially hundreds of people and left an entire community in Tulsa, Oklahoma completely decimated. That community, known as Greenwood - an African American district in North Tulsa, suffered a brutal attack by a white mob, which resulted in a horrific scene of chaos, destruction and bloodshed. The area, with a population of about 10,000 at the time, according to the historical society, had been considered one of the most affluent African American communities in the United States for the early part of the 20th century. For that reason it earned the name Black Wall Street. Although the attack was decades in the making, allegations of assault coupled with boiling racial tensions and inflammatory newspaper articles are widely believed to be the cataclysmic events that sparked the attack.   In this episode, listeners will hear audio recordings of interviews with two survivors of the Tulsa Race Massacre, including William Danforth Williams as well as Eunice Jackson. Featured guests in this episode include: Dr. Scott Ellsworth, writer, historian and professor in the Department of Afroamerican and African Studies at the University of Michigan.   -Hannibal B. Johnson, attorney, consultant and author of Black Wall Street. -Dr. Alicia Odewale, associate professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Tulsa.   A special thanks to the Oklahoma Historical Society and the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum for allowing the use of their archival audio recordings in this episode. Musical Attribution: 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode  Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0)  Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
47:52
March 25, 2020
S1 E5: Rumors of Lynching "Diamond Dick"
On Monday, May 30, 1921 an African American shoe shine boy named Dick Rowland boarded an elevator in the Drexel building in downtown Tulsa, OK and headed for the upper floor restroom as he had done in the past. On the elevator was a young Caucasian elevator operator named Sarah Page.  According to Rowland, who was known around town as "Diamond Dick," the elevator lurched, causing him to fall against Page, who then screamed. A nearby white store clerk store ran to her aid. Fearing for his safety, Rowland Fled. The store clerk  reported the incident as an attempted assault. After word of the alleged assault made its way around town, a mob  formed outside of the jail Rowland was being kept in that in all likely hood would have lynched him if they could. Ultimately Page refused to testify against Rowland and declined to prosecute the case. The damage, however, had already been done.  In this episode, listeners will hear excerpts of the documentary, "The Origins of Lynching Culture in the United States." The documentary is produced by the organization, “Facing History and Ourselves.” Their mission is to use the lessons of history to challenge teachers and their students to stand up to bigotry and hate. To learn more visit, www.facinghistory.org.  Featured guests in this episode include:  -Hannibal B. Johnson, attorney, consultant and author of Black Wall Street.  -Randy Krehbiel, Tulsa World Reporter and Author of Tulsa 1921: Reporting a Massacre.  Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994 2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819 4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
34:18
March 19, 2020
S1 E4: The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 2)
The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the period between the spring and fall of that year (specifically, between April and November), during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year. With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later. Part 2 of this two-part episode will feature parts of the documentary, "Knoxville's Red Summer," to do a deep dive into the Knoxville Race Riots of 1919 as an example of some of factors that precipitated riots and mob violence around the country. The documentary was produced by Black in Appalachia, which works to highlight the history of African Americans in the Appalachian Mountains as well as the visibility and contributions of black communities in the Mountain South. Listeners will hear from Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
27:18
March 11, 2020
S1 E4: The Red Summer of 1919 (Part 1)
The Red Summer of 1919 refers to the summer and fall of that year between April and November, during which time about 25 or so race riots, massacres and instances of mob-inspired violence exploded throughout the country. The most brutal and vicious occurred in Chicago, Washington, D.C., and Elaine Arkansas. Additionally,nearly 100 lynchings of African Americans were recorded in that year.  With heightened racial tension across the nation, it was against this backdrop that the Tulsa Race Massacre occurred two years later.   The featured guest for this episode is Cameron McWhirter, Wall Street Journal Reporter and author of Red Summer: The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Listeners will also hear an interview with Juanita Mitchell who is survived the Chicago Race Riots of 1919. She was 107 years old when the interview was conducted by Chicago's Newberry Library. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
41:46
March 4, 2020
S1 E3: Black Wall Street is Born
Oil and the prospect of opportunity attracted people of various ethnicities, backgrounds, cultures and traditions to Oklahoma from across the country and beyond, One of the most culturally influential elements taking shape in the early 20th century in places across Oklahoma, particularly in dozens of all-black communities and towns, was Jazz. According to the Oklahoma Historical Society’s Encyclopedia on Jazz, “To understand the history of jazz in Oklahoma, one must first consider the settlement patterns of the state, because they reflect its cultural diversity." At the same time, the Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Oklahoma was a thriving, prosperous, predominantly African American business district. The amount of wealth contained within the community earned it the nickname Black Wall Street. The racial politics of the day meant that African Americans could neither live among whites, and if they did attempt to shop alongside of them, they were often discriminated against.  While many African Americans at the time worked as servants or in service positions in Tulsa, they developed their own insular society and economy out of necessity. They desired to live in a place where they could enjoy their constitutional rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness while living in a community that allowed them to enjoy the fruits of their labor without facing the constant ugliness of racism or having to fear for their safety and lives.  Black Tulsans in Greenwood decided to spend their wages in their own community, spawning an insular economy that included mostly black-owned businesses such as grocery stores, barbershops, hair salons, doctors offices, attorneys offices, hotels, transportation companies, newspapers and schools.  Guests of Episode 3 include,  John Hope Franklin Center for Reconciliation Executive Director, Reuben Gant. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates, and Tulsa Race Massacre survivor, Wilhelmina Guess Howell. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
40:45
March 4, 2020
S1 E2: Oklahoma: A Promised Land
To understand the rise and eventual fall of Tulsa’s Black Wall Street, it’s important to understand the racial and economic conditions that contributed to it. These dynamics really started to take shape during Oklahoma's oil boom of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which attracted people of various ethnicities and income  levels to the region.  The discovery of oil in Indian Territory and later in what became the state of Oklahoma also spurred business and development in many parts of Oklahoma, including Tulsa. However, the opportunities a person had available to them in what we call the state of Oklahoma today, and how well they did under the changing economic circumstances, depended on a number of circumstances: namely ones race.  Guests of Episode 2 include Michelle Place, the Executive Director the Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, as well as Eugene Harrod, Adjunct Professor at The College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa historian and author, Eddie Faye Gates, and a man named Alfred Barnett, who lived and worked in Tulsa at the time of the oil boom. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
28:01
February 19, 2020
S1 E1: The "Five Civilized Tribes" & The Complicated History of Blacks & Native Americans
The racial tensions that led to the Tulsa Race Massacre of 1921 did not begin in 1921. They began decades before the city of Tulsa and the state of Oklahoma were formed. Episode 1 will look back at the various ethnic groups that inhabited Indian Territory and later the state of Oklahoma in the 19th century, how they contributed to the foundation of the state, including Tulsa, and how the racial as well as socio-economic dynamics of the region at the time were related to the Tulsa Race Massacre.  Guests include Dr. Bob Blackburn, who is the Executive Director of the Oklahoma Historical Society, as well as Eugene Harrod, who currently works as Adjunct Professor at The College of the Muscogee Nation. Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview between Tulsa author and historian, Eddie Faye Gates, and a woman named Thelma DeEtta Perryman Gray, who is a descendant of some of Tulsa's founders. Her great grandfather was Lewis Perryman, who is considered one of the founding fathers of what became known as "Tulsey Town." Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
36:33
February 19, 2020
S1 Introduction: Black Wall Street 1921
An introduction to the premise of this podcast, which chronicles the history and related events of what has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history." Historical artifacts include an audio recording of an interview with Tulsa Race Massacre Survivor, William Danforth Williams. Musical Attributions 1. Glueworm Evening Blues (ID 994) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyrite information. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode Linked to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Glueworm_Blues_ID_994   2. Title: Driving to the Delta (ID 923) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copywite information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563 Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Welcome/Driving_to_the_Delta_ID_923_1563   3. Spirit Inside (ID 819) by Lobo Loco License, disclaimer and copyright information: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/0) Link to music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Lobo_Loco/Tree_of_Meditation/Spirit_Inside_ID_819   4. African Moon by John Bartmann Link to license, disclaimer and copyright information: CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ Link to Music: https://freemusicarchive.org/music/John_Bartmann/Public_Domain_Soundtrack_Music_Album_One/african-moon
09:59
February 18, 2020