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Inka land Podcasts: Historia, cultura, política, economía, turismo, viajes, opinión, actualidad.

Inka land Podcasts: Historia, cultura, política, economía, turismo, viajes, opinión, actualidad.

By Inkaland Group
Inkaland Group: Peru Podcasts de Historia, cultura, politica, economia, actulidad, turismo, viajes, opinión, actualidad. en www.inkland.com
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 19)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 19 HOW PIZARRO WAS ASSASSINATED 1541 ALL the Pizarros put on motiming for Almagro, and two of them, Hernando and Gonzalo, followed his remains to the tomb. The third member of this precious trio, Governor Francisco, was on his way from Lima while the trial was being conducted, and is said to have purposely delayed his arrival at Cuzco in order to leave Hernando a free hand. He desired the death of his partner and rival, but did not wish it to appear that he was privy to it. Hernando, it seems, had no such scruples, and when, after sending a message to the governor (who was then at Xauxa), asking what he should do with Almagro, he received in reply: **Deal with him so that he shall cause us no more trouble,*' he followed these instructions literally. Almagro had, indeed, been put where he would cause them no more trouble; but he had left an heir to his claims, as well as friends who revered his memory and would avenge his death. He left a son, the offspring of an Indian woman of Panama, and like himself illegitimate, but to whom he was tenderiy attached. Young Diego Almagro had followed his father to the field and been with him constantly since he could stand alone. Just before the marshal was executed, he was sent to meet the governor, who received him graciously and promised him protection, at the same time assuring him his father should not be killed. Even at that moment, however, Almagro the elder was being strangled in his cell, and the boy was thus left at the mercy of his enemies. When Francisco Pizarro received tidings of Almagro's death he was at the bridge of Abangay, where his rival had fought and defeated Alvarado. He was greatly affected, even to tears, and his frame trembled with emotion, though his grief was not so poignant but that he could hide it successfully on his entrance into Cuzco a few days later. With blare of trumpet and beat of drum, banners flying and horses prancing, Governor Pizarro entered a second time the city of the stm, to receive the homage of its inhabitants. He was richly dressed, wearing a splendid suit of velvet adorned with gems, which had been sent him from Mexico by Hernando Cortes. Establishing himself in the palace, he administered the government, while his brother, Hernando, made preparations for a voyage to Spain. It was a desperate move for Hernando, who, in doubt as to the reception he would receive, gathered a vast quantity of treasure as a gift to propitiate the emperor, perchance he should be incensed at his treatment of Almagro. His fears were well fotmded, as it proved, for soon after arriving in Spain he was summoned to trial, and eventually cast into prison, from which he did not emerge for twenty-three years! When finally released, he found not one friend alive to welcome him, it is said, save his niece, Francisco's child by the daughter of Inca Atahuallpa, whom the governor lived with after he had murdered her father. 
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April 05, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 18)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 18 THE DOWNFALL OF ALMAGRO 1537-1538 HOUGH Hernando Pizarro had driven the enemy from Cuzco and its immediate neighborhood, he dared not send even a coiirier to the coast for tidings of his brother,  as the mountains were still infested with roving bands of Indians. By putting some of his captives to the torture, he extorted from them the unwelcome information that the governor had abandoned Lima and had sailed for Panama with all his people. They also said that the Inca had in his possession the skins of one hundred and fifty horses, the remains of Pizarro's cavalry, and the heads of two hundred Spaniards slain in battle! This dismal news convinced Hernando that he was left alone in the land with his decimated band; but he did not give over pursuit and persecution of the natives, nevertheless. While engaged in that occupation SO congenial to his cruel nature one day, rumors reached him of the near approach to Cuzco of Almagro's army. For a while he was uncertain whether the "men of Chile"— as they were henceforth called — came as friends or enemies; but he was not left long in doubt. Soon an embassy arrived from Almagro, who sent a copy of his credentials from the crown, confirming him as marshal and adelantado, with a peremptory demand that he be given possession of the city. That doughty commander had been defeated in his projected conquest of the great southern country—not by hostile armies, but by the elements. The asperities of nature had proved too great for him to overcome, especially with that loadstone at Cuzco pulling him back. He and his men had advanced hopefully and cheerily at first, but when at last they began to suffer from cold and hunger, when many had lost toes and fingers from frost-bites, and the provisions gave out, they resolved to return. The decision was not made, however, until the sufferings of the army had become acute, until the frozen carcasses of all their horses had been devoured, in the extremity of hunger and there seemed actually no hope of reaching the land of gold — still far off beyond the snowy mountains. They had marched three hundred miles beyond the southern frontier of Peru before they set their faces northward again, on the return journey crossing a vast and dreary desert, and endiu-ing great privations. They were at Arequipa, less than two htmdred miles from Cuzco, when they first heard of the Indian insturection. They learned, also, that the Inca was still intrenched in his stronghold, not far from Cuzco. Though his force of nearly five hundred men far exceeded that of Hernando Pizarro, depleted as it was by the protracted contest, Almagro thought it might be desirable to secure Manco Capac as an ally, so sent to him, soliciting an interview. The Inca consented; but he had heard of the cruelties practised by Almagro upon the Indians of the south: of the chain gangs he had made up of the natives, compelling them to serve as beasts of burden until they dropped dead from fatigue; of the thirty Indian chiefs he had burned alive in revenge for the killing of three of his men. 
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April 05, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 17)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 17 THE INCA RAISES HIS STANDARD 1535-1536 PIZARRO now had wealth beyond any expectation in which he had ever indulged; he had honors, also, greater than any his proud father had enjoyed; for, as Marquis of AtaviUos, he had been admitted to the aristocracy of Spain. Such an elevation, of one who in youth had been a swineherd, might have turned the head of FranciscD Pizarro if it had come to him at a previous period of his life; but he was now old enough to measure his honors by the proper standarr 1. He had received no more than he meritcfl, and, aside from the vast wealth he had won,' his rewards were, in truth, hardly aderjuato for the thirty long years of persistent endeavor. Of one thing he was convinced: that he had had enough of fighting, and nrm de^ed only to spend his last years, if not in retirement, at least in peace.  The founding of cities and the promotion of agriculture were now more congenial to his temperament than the wielding of the sword. But he was not to be allowed to rest, for, after having, as he thought, conquered and pacified the country, he was sudI I : denly called upon to gird himself again for battle, and thereafter was in constant ttu*moil. The cause of his next anxiety was the young Inca, Manco Capac, whom he had left virtually a captive in charge of Juan and Gonzalo Pizarro. We have seen that he had ;!; never abandoned the idea of assuming the authority which had been denied him, and was merely awaiting the right moment for striking a blow for liberty. The dissensions of the Spaniards seemed to offer him this opportunity, and he promptly availed himself of it, as soon as the two great leaders, Pizarro and Almagro, had turned their backs upon Cuzco. Soon after Almagro's departure, the Peruvian high - priest, Villaoma, stealthily returned to Cuzco and held a long interview with the Inca. Hernando Pizarro was in command at the time, having superseded his brothers because of his superior ability. Though cruel and tyrannical, he had, somehow, won the sympathy of the Indians, who recalled that Atahuallpa had said, just before his death, that if Hernando had been in Cassamarca he would not have suffered so cruel a fate.
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April 05, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 16)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 16 QUARRELS OF THE CONQUERORS 1534-1535 STRANGE as it may appear, Manco Capac had taken great pleasure in assisting at the defeat of Quizquiz, the valiant Peruvian, because most of his soldiers were men of Quito, to which city and province belonged a faction from which he had much to fear. , Indeed, the men of Quito were invariably plotting treason in his camp, and intriguing against him. When, in the progress of events, Manco Capac could endure no longer the humiliations imposed upon him, and endeavored to escape to the mountains, warriors of Quito in the service of Pizarro betrayed him, and brought about his capture. That episode of the conquest will be narrated in due course; meanwhile, let us turn to glance for a moment at that portion of olden Peru lying on and north of the equator, known as Quito. As we have seen already, it was the birthplace of Atahuallpa, and during the latter years of Huayna Capac his chosen place of residence. The unparalleled achievements of Pizarro in Peru had drawn to that country the attention of all the Spanish adventurers in America, as well as of those at home desirous of ;i ,1 emulating their careers. Among others was that valiant but unscrupulous officer who ••[ served with Cort6s in Mexico, Pedro de Alvarado. He was then governor of Guatemala, which country he had conquered, and was enjoying wealth and honors that should have satisfied the most towering of ambitions ; but, casting his eye towards Peru, and noting that Quito had not been invaded, he resolved to conquer it. So he diverted from its original destination a fleet that had been intended for the Spice Islands, and with five hundred men, well equipped, landed on the southern coast. In short, he marched upon Quito, which he finally reached after terrible sufferings while crossing the Cordilleras; but was not permitted to taste the fruits of conquest, since he had aroused enemies far more formidable than the natives of the country. For Pizarro, on receiving the alarming rumors of this invasion of his territory, immediately despatched Almagro to intercept Alvarado, and, if possible, induce him to quit the territory. Though he pressed forward with the utmost rapidity, Almagro found, on reaching San Miguel, that the commandant of that place, Sebastian Benalcazar, had anticipated his design, and himself hurried off to make the capture of Quito. Both commanders, in fact, reached and grasped the coveted prize before Alvarado arrived, and with united forces calmly awaited his coming. There was then the prospect of a bloody encounter, for the redoubtable hero of Guatemala and Mexico was the equal in valor and military training of any captain of his time. But, though he had a force vastly superior in numbers to his opponents, it had been weakened by starvation to such an extent that he hesitated to give battle. In brief, negotiations were entered into which resulted in the fiery Alvarado agreeing to withdraw from the country for a consideration of one hundred thousand pesos de orOy or about a million dollars, which, he claimed, was less than his armament had cost him, not to mention the privations he had endured.
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April 05, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 15)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 15 IN THE CITY OP THE SUN 1533-1534 LEAVING the treasure he had collected -/with a guard of forty men in Xauxa, Pizarro continued his march into the beautiful vale of Xaquixaguana (Ha-kee-ha-gudna), which, for its great natural charms, had been selected by many Peruvian nobles as a retreat, and where they had built attractive villas in the midst of delectable gardens. Here he was met one day by a young Peruvian, who promised to establish that control over the natives which had been lost when Atahuallpa was executed. He was the one, indeed, in whom was vested the only right to the succession, for it was none other than Prince Manco Capac, a brother of the murdered Huascar, and legitimate son of the great Huayna Capac. Then Pizarro rejoiced that fate had been so kind to him, in causing the deaths of Atahuallpa and Toparca, for thereby he was relieved of what, in the circumstances, might have been embarrassing burdens. For there was no doubt that the Indian prince, who came to him with a large retinue of nobles and escorted by a ntunerous army, was the only legitimate heir to the Incarial throne. He was a yoimg man of engaging appearance, and blessed with intelligence far surpassing that of Atahuallpa—an intelligence, :jj i in truth, which was to cause the Spaniards trouble. It had been one of the charges against Atahuallpa that he had put all his relatives, descendants of the Incas, to death, not even stopping short of the most distant connections of the royal family; but the living presence of Prince Manco was in itself a refutation of that charge. Pizarro was delighted at the change wrought in the aspect of political affairs, and at once ranged the young Inca and his force beneath his banners. He assured him that his only mission in Peru was the punishment of his and the late Huascar's enemies, and to reduce the country to subjection under its lawful sovereign. To this end he had landed on its shores; in pursuance of this aim he had first captured, then, on proof of treason, condemned the Inca Atahuallpa, and, finally, he was then ready to assist Prince Manco with all the strength of his forces. This assertion, though the prince must have known it to be false, was borne out on the face of it, and made to appear true to the people by the combining of the two commands. Together they marched along, the soldiers and the Indians fraternizing like real brothers, and together they repelled an assault by a body of armed natives, who ambushed them in a defile of the mountains. Emerging from the gloomy recesses of the sierras one afternoon, the Spaniards saw the city of Cuzco lying before them, its white towers gleaming in the slant rays of a setting sun. Then they knew their long journey was nearing its end, and that within their sight were the depositories of treasure which they had long desired to pillage. They could not reach it that night, however, and a camp was pitched in the valley outside the city walls. Strict watch was kept, for, notwithstanding the invaders had with them the only lawful claimant to the throne of the Incas, they knew that dissension and strife were rife in the land.
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April 05, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 14)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 14 IN THE HEART OF PERU 1533 SURROUNDED by a guard, the body of the Inca remained overnight in the plaza, but in the morning was taken to the church the Spaniards had built and interred with pomp and ceremony. This tardy honor to the deceased, it was thought, would give great satisfaction to the nobles and caciques, since he was buried "as if he had been a Spaniard''; but the funeral rites, though solemn and impressive, were not so regarded by his people, who invaded the church in crowds, and filled the air with shrieks and lamentations. They were forcibly expelled, and told that Atahuallpa no longer belonged to them, having died a Christian; but several of his wives and sisters (it is related) hastened to their quarters, and there committed suicide, in order to join their lord and master in the celestial abode to which they believed he had gone. They could not believe that he had, by a mere nod of his head, transferred his allegiance to the God of the strangers. They cherished his memory, notwithstanding his apostasy, and after the Spaniards had left Cassamarca some devoted followers secretly exhumed his remains and transferred them to Quito, the "City of the Kings.'' The barbarity of this heinous act of Pizarro is apparent on the face of it, and needs no comment from the historian. While the capture and imprisonment of Atahuallpa may have seemed a military necessity, there was absolutely no excuse for the attendant massacre, and for the crime committed in putting the Inca to death. Had he been cast in the ordinary mould of humanity, Pizarro must have suffered from remorse, especially when, a few days after the execution, De Soto returned and reported that there was no hostile army, and that the rumor of a rising instigated by the Inca was absolutely false. The generous cavalier was wrought to a pitch of indignation almost beyond restraint. He strode into the presence of Pizarro and denounced the execrable deed in immeasured terms. Steeped in crime as he was, Pizarro had the sensibility to blush with shame, and sought .jl to cast the blame upon Riquelme, the treas urer, and Valverde, the priest. They in turn recriminated, and through the squabble that ensued, when these murderers met face to face, it became evident to all that they had done to death an innocent man. "You knew I was his friend," exclaimed De Soto, reproachfully, " and so sent me away that I might not be here to defend him! It was a dastardly crime, and, moreover, one committed without a precedent. You had no right to bring to trial one so high in station as the Inca. He was a king, and only the king, our emperor, should have sat in judgment on him!
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April 04, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 13)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 13 THE INCA AND HIS MURDERERS 1S33 WHAT a day was that in Cassamarca, when the emissaries returned from Cuzco! It was filled with rejoicings, and the Inca was as delighted as the soldiers of Pizarro at the successful outcome of their hazardous journey. He may have felt some pangs of regret when the adornments of the temple were exposed to view: those plates and bars of gold which had been lavished by his ancestors upon the abode of their deity. But were they not the price of his freedom? The great room was now filling rapidly, with such a variety of golden plate, tiles, goblets, salvers, vases, such ingenious creations of the barbaric artisans, that the Spaniards gasped in wonder and astonishment. All were beautiful—^too beautiful to go to the melting-pot—^but among them were several objects that claimed particiilat attention. One of these was a golden fountain, of which not only the basin and sparkling jet of water were imitated, but, as well, aquatic birds that played about them and disported in the spray. Another was a sheaf of maize, with ear of solid gold incased in leaves of silver, and golden tassel pendent. If any object in nature were worth imitating it surely should be the maize, or Indian-corn, which for centuries had fed the natives of America, and was destined to prove such a blessing to countless thousands in both worlds divided by the great waters. Some of these inestimable treasures of art were preserved, for exhibition in Spain; but the most of them were melted into ingots, in which shape they were more easily divided among the impatient conquerors. Ever since the return of the emissaries from Cuzco, in fact, the soldiers had clamored for an inmiediate partition of the spoils, realizing the dangers in delay; biit a full month was consumed in recasting and reckoning up the value of this treasure, so that by the time the day of division carile round the soldiers were almost ready to tear one another into pieces for their shares. If Pizarro had wished to deprive any one of his portion, he surely did not dare, and the restdt was that all received what was due them, though many were far from satisfied. The grand total amounted to more than fifteen million dollars, of which first the "King's fifth" was set aside, then Francisco Pizarro's share, which amounted to more than half a million (including his booty in silver). His brother, Hernando, received half as much as he, Hernando de Soto half the sum given to the former, and so on, in a descending scale, the cavalry receiving more than eight thousand golden pesos each, and the infantry four thousand.
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April 04, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 12)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 12 THE PRISONER AND HIS RANSOM 1532 RECALLED by shrill blasts of the trumpet, the cavalry ceased their pursuit of the fugitives, and returned to the plaza, where the last scenes of the dreadful massacre were enacted in the despatching of the wounded and the removal of the dead. While the pavement of the plaza was still encumbered with the victims of the Spaniards' vengeance, the Inca was stmmioned from his cell to sup with his conqueror. Pizarro might have spared his prisoner this humiliation, but his nature was of the coarse and vulgar sort that gloats over the condition of a fallen foe. Atahuallpa had been roughly handled in the affray at the litter, and his robes torn from his person, so he was reclothed in less expensive garments, while his diadem and jewels were appropriated by the victor. In the accounts given of this banquet following after the massacre, it is stated that the Inca bore himself with serenity, though still bewildered by the sudden and terrible change in his fortunes. Like Montezuma of Mexico, in similar circumstances, he accepted his hard fate stoically, and even indulged in the hope of an early release from imprisonment. But, with all his fortitude, he had, as may be imagined, but little appetite for the tempting viands that were set before him, nor would he more than taste the delicious wines in which Pizarro besought him to drown the remembrance of his woes. It was veritably a "Barmecide feast" for the unfortunate Atahuallpa, who might well have thought it all unreal and but the product of a dream. He was brought to his senses, however, by Pizarro, who improved the occasion by delivering a homily upon his pride and arrogance; and he did not fail to mention how fortunate Atahuallpa should consider himself in having fallen into the hands of such considerate people as the Spaniards and such a merciful captain as himself. "Reflect,*' he said, "upon what you did. You came against us with a mighty army; you threw the Book of Grod upon the ground; you insulted a minister of the Most High; yet we have preserved your life, and have Idlled but a few hundred of yotir people. This punishment, you cannot but perceive, has been sent in order that you should be abased, and be forced to acknowledge the greatness of otir Lord and God, in whom we believe." Atahuallpa humbly assented, amazed at himself that he shotdd accept the commands of this low-bom conqueror. He could not but admit that the gods of the strangers were more powerful than his own, though he was inclined to attribute his downfall to the fortunes of war and not to the defection of his gods. To the end, indeed, he clung to his belief in the sun-god, and gave adherence to no other.
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April 04, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 11)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 11 HOW ATAHUALLPA WAS CAPTURED 1532 THE cavaliers were invited to dismount and partake of refreshments; but as it was late they were in haste to return, and accepted only a foaming beverage called chicha, which was handed up to them by dark-skinned Hebes, and which they drank from golden goblets gemmed with emeralds. Their fingers itched to snatch those precious vessels from the fair hands of the Indian maidens, and bear them back as trophies to their commander; but they forebore — the time was not yet come for pillage. They rode back to camp in the darkness, the white road showing them the way, gloomily discussing the strength and martial aspect of the Inca's army. They were now convinced of his power, as well as of the grandetu* of his court, and were more than dubious as to the result should he appeal to arms. Their fears they communicated to Pizarro, who, though he also realized the critical nature of their situation, affected to scoff at their misgivings. "Fear ye not," he exclaimed. "Have I not known this all the time? Have I not been dwelling upon this situation by night and by day ? And, think ye, comrades, that I have not a scheme ? Ay, that have I. This is it. Listen, attend, and obey, for all our lives depend upon the success of it!" They were gathered within the fortress on the height, where Pizarro had posted their artillery, consisting of two falconets, or small field-pieces, in charge of Pedro de Candia. The cavalry were quartered in the barracks, the infantry in the "House of the Serpent"; sentinels paced their rounds in the upper and the lower fortress. All due care having been taken to secure the camp against surprise, Pizarro and his captains had assembled for a council of war. "I hold that we are of one mind," continued Pizarro, " which is that ours is a most desperate case. Whatever happens, whichever way we turn, we cannot retreat. Neither can we go forward, nor stay still. We cannot engage the army of the Inca in the open field—it is too vast. We might hold our own here for a time, if attacked; but we have only a scanty supply of provisions, and even this is owing to the bounty of the Inca. There is only one thing to do. I have pondered it long, but only this day did it appear to me how it could be done. What think ye it is, brothers and comrades?" No one replied, for each one feared to guess aright, as that would have vexed their commander.
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April 04, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 10)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 10 IN THE INCA'S STRONGHOLD (1532) THE desperate nature of their venture must have been deeply impressed upon the Spaniards, as, climbing the slippery steps of that mountain roadway, the cavalry leading their horses by the bridles, and the infantry assisting their steps by means of pikes and arquebuses, they slowly progressed towards the sierra's summit. Carefully their scouts reconnoitred the craggy steeps, crowned by deserted fortresses, from which they expected an avalanche of rocks and stones and missile weapons. With every sense alert and nerves tingling with apprehension, they crept aroimd the scarped sides of precipitous cliffs, now and then compelled to cross an abysmal chasm, over a frail and trembling suspension bridge of osiers, swung like a hammock above a roaring torrent. They fully realized what it was they were now engaged in—^the most perilous adventure of that century. Why were they climbing those motmtain heights? Why were they penetrating the heart of a country swarming with inhabitants, as an ant-hill swarms with ants? Why were they suffering, enduring, persisting in going farther and farther into a region from which, if they were defeated in battle, there would be absolutely no escape ? Their leader, iron-hearted Pizarro, had from the first proclaimed their purpose to be the extension of their sovereign's power and the conversion of the Indians to the " only true faith"; but, if they ever admitted the truth, they could have confessed the real purpose of that expedition in a single word. It was gold, or its equivalent, that was the animating motive for all their toils and heroic exploits. But, while the motive was ignoble, no one can deny that they heroically endured, valiantly fought, and stoutly combated all the difficulties that man and nature had thrown in their way. They may have mtirmured, but no member of that little band complained aloud, for all the weak-kneed ones had been weeded out. Before the sierras were well entered, Pizarro had given them the opportunity to return to San Miguel. Only nine availed themselves of this offer, and the ninescore who remained were truly "men of blood and iron." They had borne their heavy armor beneath the blazing sun of the lowlands, sweltering and staggering with the heat and the burden; through the sierras they had toiled, upward, ever upward, and at last had arrived at the bleak plains, above which towered the higher Andes, with their crowns of perpetual ice and snow. While crossing this elevated region, with cold so intense that the soldiers shivered imtil their armor clanged, they were met by another embassy from the Inca. He sent greeting, and a gift of llamas to Pizarro; but his messenger was accused by a spy, who had penetrated to the Inca's camp and returned, of treachery on the part of his master. A wrangle ensued between the spy and the ambassador, during which it became evident to Pizarro that Atahuallpa was playing a double game, luring him on by gifts and fair promises, but all the while perfecting a snare for his destruction. It was but natural that Pizarro, himself with sinister aims against the monarch of the country he was invading, should hold suspicions of that sovereign; and again, it was not remarkable that the Inca should have viewed the approach of the Spaniards with distrust. In the simplicity of his nature, he saw no reason, no adequate motive, for this invasion, since he himself held gold in light esteem, and, content with the religion of his ancestors, could not conceive why the strangers should wish to impose their own upon him and his people.
14:38
April 04, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 09)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 09 A MARCH TO THE MOUNTAINS 1532 WE left Pizarro at San Miguel, that first town founded by Europeans in Peru, on the river Piura, not far from the sea. While he was engaged in partitioning lands and natives among the settlers, erecting buildings, and establishing a form of government, Atahuallpa the victorious was encamped in a beautiful valley at the base of the great mountains known as Cassamarca. He himself had not taken part in the last battle, for it had been fought and won by a brave general in command of his veteran troops. As Cassamarca was conveniently situated between the far-distant cities of Quito and Cuzco—^which latter the Inca had not yet seen—he awaited the coming of his general there, intending after his arrival to march upon the City of the Sun. His camp, in fact, was about ten days' journey from San Miguel, from which, in the last week of September, 1532, Pizarro set out to seek him. As will be shown in the unfolding of this narrative, Pizarro could not have chosen a more opporttme time for invasion, or have contrived a ijiore fortunate combination of circumstances, had he been perfectly aware of what was occurring behind that mysterious barrier of motmtains which interposed between him and the army of the Inca. The death of Huayna Capac, the elder Inca, had occurred sometime in 1525, and while Pizarro was equipping himself for the conquest—^reconnoitring the coast, voyaging to Spain and soliciting the crown, raising troops, accumulating munitions, and building vessels— the important events were happening within the empire, or kingdom, which were to hasten its downfall. The decisive event, the conflict between Atahuallpa and Huascar, occurred in the first half of the year 1532, and but for that clash of the two sovereigns, who should have been at peace, Pizarro might not have been permitted to invade their country. For, not only had it weakened the Inca's power, by causing an alienation of hitherto servile thousands, whose allegiance was now divided, but it had been the cause of Atahuallpa's leaving his capital city of Quito and advancing to a point much nearer the coast, and hence more accessible to the invaders. Had there been no feud between the two rivals, on the thrones of Quito and Cuzco, and especially if they could have united against the common foe, there is no question but that the Spaniards would have been repelled, if not annihilated. Many thousand Peruvians had been slain in battle, and the surly survivors compelled to look upon the victor as their lord; while in addition to the massacre committed by the soldiers, Atahuallpa had perpetrated another, by which the royal family of nobles was nearly exterminated. Summoning them to meet at Cuzco for consultation, it is said, he ordered them to be butchered, many to be tortured, merely because they could, like himself, boast of Inca blood in their veins. Many of them were his half-brothers, for the late HuaytiaCapac left a numerous progeny," who might each one of them show a better title to the crown than the illegitimate Atahuallpa"; and many, again, were his sisters and cousins. All were regarded by the common people with veneration, and though these were the most submissive, docile subjects in the world, they could not but resent this bloody act of the usurper.
15:11
April 03, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 08)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 08 A GLANCE AT THE PERUVIANS IN order to understand the nature of this enterprise projected by Pizarro—^to grasp its magnitude, and fully comprehend its perils, we should pause a while—^before proceeding with him into the unknown cotmtry, and inform ourselves as to its resources. How did it differ from any other portion of South America, and why was this territory better worth invading than any other? In the first place, it was imique in its geographical situation, physical conditions, and natural resources. It seemed as though nature had outdone herself in creating the stupendous Andes, with peaks rising more than twenty thousand feet into the clouds, and stored with an inexhaustible supply of precious metals. A continuous moimtain chain, or Cordillera^ ran almost parallel with the trend of the coast, between which and this "backbone of the continent" exists every variety of table-land, or elevated plain, fertile valley, gloomy gorge, ravine, and arid desert country. The ancient empire of the Incas, which Pizarro had so audaciously invaded, was comprehended within the present limits of Peru, and overlapped its northern botmdaries. It extended from two or three degrees north of the equator to thirty-seven or thirty-eight south of it, and from the Pacific on the west to the headwaters of the Amazon on the east. Perhaps we might better say that its botmdaries, except on the Pacific, were indeterminate, since no obstacle of a physical nattire seemed sxifficient to deter the warlike Incas in their territorial conquests. In the second place, this wonderful region, with every variety of climate from torrid to frigid, was occupied by an equally wonderful people, who, during the lapse of centuries had developed a civilization, state or condition of refinement, unequalled by that of any other aboriginal nation on the American continent. The Aztecs of Mexico in some respects surpassed these "Incas" of Peru—or, rather, they adopted and adapted the civilization of former peoples, as the Toltecs, and the Mayas of Yucatan, with their hieroglyphics and tm surpassed architecttire—^but they were not, upon the whole, so advanced. But for their thought-carrying "picturewritings " and their astronomical system (both, probably, inherited from the Toltecs), the Aztecs might be classed second to the Incas in civilization. The truth is, that each nation had advanced along special lines, the one excelling the other in some things; but in general culture the Peruvians probably surpassed the Mexicans. Each nation had developed in absolute ignorance of the other, separated as were these two peoples by Central America and the isthmian region; but if they had been conjoined, they might have risen to a plane hardly inferior to that occupied by some of the Old-World monarchies. Had there been any sort of communication between the two during the years in which the conquest of Mexico and the West Indies was being achieved, the fate of Peru might have been different from what it was as history informs us. Not a hint, however, reached the Peruvians of what was going on outside their motmtainous domain, save that vague rumor now and then disturbed them with the tidings of strangers in armor and with wonderful weapons, landing on the isthmus and flitting along their coast. 
17:45
April 03, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 07)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 07 ON THE PERUVIAN FRONTIER (1531-1532) ON a day in January, 1531, nearly three years after his departure for Spain, Pizarro launched the fourth and largest expedition, for which he had been so long preparing, and in which he had invested everything he possessed. His ships were freighted with his hopes, as well, for he never despaired of achieving the conquest upon which he had set his heart. Having in mind the treasures he had seen at Tumbez, and doubting not they were yet awaiting him, he issued orders for his pilots to steer straight for the gulf of Guayaquil, upon which that port was situated. Baffling winds and currents forced him to land at a point about sixty miles from Tumbez; but still, despite these obstacles, he traversed in fourteen days a distance it had taken him two years to gain in his previous attempts. 95 Landing his troops in the province of Coaque, Pizarro marched them along the shore, while the ships pursued a parallel course by sea, and in this manner he approached and surprised an Indian village. The inhabitants came forth to greet him amicably, as they had done before, relying upon the supposed friendliness of the strangers ; but, having arrived in strength and with power, the Spaniards cast off the cloak of humanity, which they had assumed in their weakness, and fell upon the Indians like fiends. They fled in terror as the soldiers, sword in hand, ravaged the village of all they possessed, not only of gold, silver, and gems, but of food as well. A vast amount of spoil was obtained, which, boasted Pizarro, would never have been foimd if they had not surprised the natives before they could secrete it. "Hereafter, comrades," he said, as he harangued his men in the deserted village, "we will do as we have done to-day. The friendship of the natives is a good thing, but their treasure is what we are after. We will pursue this course at Tumbez, for there we shall find enough to enrich us all. This is but paltry plimder to what we shall find at Tumbez!'' Still, there was gold, in ornaments and grains; and as for emeralds, they were so numerous that the Spaniards did not realize their value. Some were fotmd as large as birds* eggs; but the best of them were destroyed by the soldiers, on the advice of one Fray Reginaldo, a Dominican monk, who had come out to convert the heathen, but who was not averse to despoiling them of their riches. Fray Reginaldo advised the soldiers to test the stones with a hammer. If they broke, they were not precious stones, but if they did not break they were true emeralds, said Fray Reginaldo.
13:60
April 03, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 06)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 06 AN APPEAL TO THE CROWN 1528-1530 ACCOMPANIED by Pedro de Candia as a r\ companion, and several Indians as captives, Pizarro embarked for Spain in the early part of 1528. Besides the Indians, as specimens of the new coimtry's products, he took with him a pair of llamas, or Peruvian sheep, many colored fabrics woven from their wool, and a rich collection of barbaric ornaments in gold and silver. He imitated his kinsman, Cort6s, in respect to presenting himself before the court with gifts to please the king; for these astute conquerors knew the weakness of the royal Charles, whose appetite for gold was as insatiable as their own. The resident partners at Panama had, by great exertion, and only after straining their credit to the utmost, raised the sum of fifteen hxmdred ducats, which they gave  Pizarro, with an injunction to make the most of it, as no more would be forthcoming. He came near losing the whole of it, however, soon after landing in Spain, for that wary individual. Lawyer Enciso, who had been with Pizarro and Balboa at Darien, brought out an ancient claim for debts, and clapped the would-be conqueror into jail. This was the reception offered Pizarro when, for the first time in twenty years, he returned to his native land. His great services to the crown were forgotten, and the only man who remembered him, it seemed, was the rascally lawyer, Enciso. No, there was one other—the king. Charles had been informed of his coming, and thinking there might be somewhat of profit in an expedition which he was called upon to sanction merely —that is, give permission for the invasion of a country not his own, and the plundering of a people over whom he did not rule—^he ordered Pizarro to be released. Not alone that, but he ordered him to appear before him at court, then being held at Toledo. Pizarro was not slow in complying with the royal mandate, and was delighted, when he arrived at court, to find there his distant relative, Cort6s, who had come for redress of grievances. The two made common cause, it is said, or, at all events, Cort6s coached his tmcouth cousin in the etiquette of the court, and even spoke a good word for him to the king. There is "honor among thieves," according to the ancient maxim, and when a number of rascals get together for the purpose of plundering honest and peace-loving citizens, they are usually true to one another —until after the plundering has been effected. This trio of plunderers, Charles, Cort6s, and Pizarro, laid their heads together, as it were, and perfected a scheme for the pillaging of Peru.
15:29
April 03, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 05)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 05 SUCCESS IN SIGHT AT LAST 1528-1529 THE weary months went by without a sign of succor. Oppressed by famine, worn with watching for the sail that did not appear, the Spaniards would have welcomed any diversion, even an invasion by the Indians, rather than longer endure that life of inaction. Day by day, from earliest mom to night, they vainly scanned the heaving bosom of the Pacific, until at last they settled down into sullen despair. The promised land lay within their sight, the glittering spires and domes of the snow-crested Andes beckoned them mockingly; but these famishing islanders had no means of sailing over to the main, save their clumsy raft, upon which they would be utterly defenceless. They had resolved, at last, that death by slow starvation was to be their fate, believing themselves utterly abandoned, when, oneday, a sail was sighted tossing on the waves. It drew near the island, but might have passed it had not Pizarro and his men rushed to a conspicuous headland and waved a banner, at the same time shooting off their arquebuses. It was a small craft to which that sail belonged, but it was found to be well stored with provisions and munitions, though with only just men enough aboard to navigate it. Sent by the faithful Almagro and Luque, who had used the last of their resources in outfitting it, even this small vessel had been allowed by the governor to sail only on condition that it should return within six months. Governor Rios had felt it incumbent upon him to rescue these reckless outcasts, even though they had disobeyed him by marooning themselves in the enemies* waters; but he imposed upon them the necessity of returning within half a year, under penalty of imprisonment if they did not obey. " We accept the conditions,'* cried Pizarro; and his men, refreshed by the food they had eaten, and fortified by the resolution of their commander, assented with a shout. "The prison yawns for us, anyway, if we return,** continued Pizarro, "for all of us are in debt, even for the swords we carry and the armor we wear. Then, on, say I; perchance we may win fame and fortune yet!" "On, on!*' shouted the gallant men. "To the limit of our time. On to Peru!" So they sailed away from Gorgona; and it seemed as if Dame Fortune mocked them, for, when in this condition, with a scant dozen of faithful adherents and only a single ship provisioned for six months, Pizarro found the kingdom and the opportunity to take it he had sought so long!
14:33
April 03, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 04)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 04 THE DESPERATE ADVENTURER 1526-1528 IT was no consolation for Pizarro to learn that, while he was on his return voyage, Almagro was seeking him in the south, and that they were plajang a game of crosspurposes. Yet such was the case. His faithful partner, after again raking and scraping the environs of Panama, as with a fine-tooth comb, had raised a scurvy crew of soldier-sailors, and, fitting up the second vessel they had purchased, had sailed in search of him down the coast. He barely missed him several times, at last arriving at Quemado, where Pizarro had received such a warm reception. The natives had returned to their village, and behind the palisades awaited the coming of the strangers. No gold was to be found, as it had been taken away by Pizarro, but Almagro resolved to attack the place, nevertheless. He assailed it with fury, and eventually drove out its defenders; but he fared still worse than Pizarro, whose wounds were not severe, as he was wounded in the head by a javelin and lost the sight of an eye. He narrowly escaped with his life, and the pain from his wound was great, yet he persevered in his search, sailing farther south than any one before him, and turning about at the river San Juan, where he found a large Indian settlement and lands in a high state of cultivation. Having landed at different points along the coast, when on the way thither, Almagro contrived to secure considerable treasuife, so his voyage was not altogether bootless, though personally he had suffered severely. Touching at the Pearl Islands on his way back, he learned that Pizarro was then in hiding at Chicamd, and, seeking him out, had the satisfaction of finding him still in health, and with about fifty stout comrades still faithful to their cause. They embraced with fervor, and then, after recounting their adventures, mutually resolved to continue their explorations.
18:36
April 02, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 03)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 03 SAILING THE UNKNOWN SEA 1524 WHAT were the thoughts of Pizarro, as he gazed upon Balboa's gory trunk and beheld the head of that once-valiant commander roll to the ground? If his sluggish brain conceived any ideas at all, the thought which was uppermost must have related in some way to the removal of a rival from his path. He may have felt resentful towards Pedrarias for his dastardly act, but he was too politic to show it, and his nature was too debased, his sensibilities too blunt, for him to feel the horror and injustice of it all. He still did his duty as a soldier, and Pedrarias had no more faithful adherent, thenceforth, than Francisco Pizarro. His behavior during the terrible retreat across the isthmus made by Morales, when, hemmed in by prowling savages, he had again and again charged upon the foe, holding them at bay while his companions effected a temporary escape from death, had commended him to the irascible old governor. He had been virtually the leader of that forlorn expedition, which had rettimed so rich in gold and pearls, yet so decimated by death, and by all he was acknowledged to have been its savior from absolute destruction. He was the man, of all men then on the isthmus, to take the place made vacant by the death of Balboa; but, though he might have carried on that leader's work, have manned the brigantines, and sailed southwardly in quest of the shadowy kingdom of which the cacique had informed him, he then had no opportunity. For, though he had displayed great ability as a fighter, he had not given evidence of possessing the qualities that make for supreme command. Perhaps he was too wary to do so, knowing the jealous nature of the governor, and preferred to bide his time—which might come after the removal, by death or otherwise, of Pedrarias. He awaited this event, however, in vain for years. The crafty old man had a strong hold on life, and before he was superseded caused more than Balboa and his companions to lose their heads. He sent Espinosa, the man who had prosecuted Balboa, to refit and man the ships the latter had btiilt and experimentally navigated; but he took the wrong direction, sailing northward instead of southward, and returned without having accomplished anything. In his heart, Pizarro was delighted at this turn of affairs, but he dared not voice his thoughts. Within two years after the execution of Balboa, or in 1519, Pedrarias removed the seat of government across the isthmus to Panama, and, after various excursions of a military character for his master into Nicaragua, Pizarro settled down to the life of a cattle farmer. He had won distinction as a conquistadorf having then been ten years engaged in fighting Indians, founding colonies, and, to the best of his ability, serving his king. That he had also served himself, and had acctimulated quite a fortune from his years of toil and hardship, is nothing to his discredit. In truth, it is rather strange than otherwise that he should have saved anything at all, since the Spanish adventurers were thriftless, given to gambling, and reckless of the future. Perhaps, however, Pizarro was a better gambler, as well as more provident, than the others.
21:54
April 02, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 02)
History: Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 02 WITH BALBOA IN DARIEN 1513-1517 AT the time he was permitted by Provir\ dence to behold that glorious panorama of sea and land, unfolded from the isolated peak in Darien, Francisco Pizarro was more than forty years of age, having been bom in or about the year 1471. His birthplace was Truxillo, Spain, in the province of Estremadura, from which also hailed Hernando Cortes, who, though fifteen years his jimior, was to achieve the conquest of Mexico before Pizarro had even heard of Peru. The two were related, through the mother of Cortes and the father of Pizarro; but they did not meet in their youth, owing to the fact that the latter, though acknowledging the paternity of Francisco, was never married to his mother. The elder Pizarro, Gonzalo, had distinguished himself in the wars of Italy, under the "Great Captain,** Gonsalvo de Cordova; but he besmirched his family scutcheon by his amours with common women, and of his five sons could boast of but one who was legitimate. Francisco was bom in poverty and disgrace, though his father lived in Truxillo as a haughty hidalgo, and it is a tradition that even his mother neglected him, his life being saved by the nursing he received from a sow. At all events, his earliest recollections were of the swine among which he was reared and to the care of which his youth was devoted. He served as a swineherd until he had become a youth of goodly size, when his father took him to the Italian wars. He perceived that Francisco was a fighter; but he seems to have done nothing to advance his son from the ranks, and of his life as a soldier in Italy very little is known. Accustomed from babyhood to cuffs and blows, neglect and hardship, and always with the curse of his birth upon him, Francisco seems to have led a hopeless sort of existence —at least ambitionless. No one had ever taken any interest in him, not even his mother, and though there were good schools in Truxillo, he grew up without learning either to read or to write. He never learned, in fact, for though he once or twice attempted it in after life, he soon gave up in disgust. He was certainly obtuse and pig-headed, though he had sense enough to perceive, when arrived at man's estate, that there was no fortune for either a swineherd or a soldier in Old Spain, and that to obtain one he must strike out in the new land discovered by Columbus beyond the Atlantic Ocean....
15:24
March 14, 2022
Pizarro and the conquest of Peru, by Frederick A. Ober (Chapter 01)
History:Pizarro and the conquest of Peru By: Frederick A. Ober  Chapter 01 IN THE LAND OP POISONBD ARROWS 151O-1519 FOUR hundred years ago the continent of South America was known to the world at large only as a vast wilderness inhabited by savages. But a few points had been touched at here and there on its northeastern coast, and no expeditions of discovery had been made to its unknown interior. Columbus, Vespucius, Pinzon, and others had sailed along certain sections of the coast, but behind the barrier of its motmtains all was mystery. It was called, indeed, and for many years after the first landing of Spaniards in the West Indies remained, the "mysterious continent." It is on the northern coast of this continent, in the year 1510, that we obtain otir I first glimpse of Francisco Pizarro. He had sailed thither from Santo Domingo, in an expedition commanded by Alonzo de Ojeda, a cavalier renowned for his lion-like cotirage, but whose impetuous bravery always led him into disaster. His lieutenant, Pizarro, was equally brave and resolute, but cool and calculating, even in the midst of perils; and thus we see him the first time he looms upon the horizon of history, sturdily defending himself against the attacks of desperate Indian hordes. Behind him and his companions lay the interminable forest, which, swarming with hostile Indians, enveloped them on every side save in front, where stretched the sea, but upon which they could not embark unless some were left to perish. His commander had been given the governorship of a province on the isthmus of Darien; but he had to conquer that province first, and as it was occupied by natives who fancied they had a better right to it than Ojeda—as they really had — and as they were, moreover, fierce and warlike, being allied to the cannibal Caribs of the islands, he found himself engaged in war at the outset. There were no braver men in the world than the Spaniards of those days, seasoned by their wars with the Moors and their many encounters with the American Indians, and, as every foe they met had been overcome, they held these natives of the New World in contempt, from the ease with which they were vanqiiished. There was hardly a Spaniard who did not consider himself a match for at least a score of Indians, clad as he was in his impenetrable armor of steel, and armed with keen-edged sword or arquebuse; while his naked enemy was almost defenceless, his rude weapons consisting solely of war-club and javelin, or lance of firehardened wood, with bow and arrows. But these natives of "Terra Firma*'—as the north coast was called—possessed a weapon which made them for a time the equals of the Spaniards. It was the terrible poisoned arrow, dipped in the deadly curari, or woorari, prepared by them in the secret recesses of the forests...
16:17
March 14, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 06)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 06 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
31:05
March 13, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 05)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 05 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
24:19
March 13, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 04)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 04 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
19:49
March 13, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 03)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 03 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
31:39
March 13, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 02)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 02 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
26:01
March 13, 2022
El Perú Republicano por Alan García Pérez (Episodio 01)
Catedra: El Perú Republicano 01 Expositor: Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez  Este podcast El Perú Republicano, es un aula impartida por el Dr. Alan García Ex presidente del Perú, donde brindan una visión integral y crítica de la República del Perú a compañeros de partido, dialogo ameno y divertido, desde sus inicios hasta fines del siglo XX. Incluye  desde la Independencia en 1821, hasta los últimos días del gobierno de Fujimori. En el intermedio se analizan los acontecimientos entre 1884 y el denominado Oncenio de Leguía, en 1919. El extenso período que abarca la obra conlleva inevitablemente ciertas limitaciones en el tratamiento de los temas; sin embargo, la historia del Perú se rescata y revalora desde una nueva dimensión e visión, basada en rigurosos análisis de la realidad Peruana, visión general de la economía, la sociología, la demografía y la estadística. El tránsito a la República, una vez lograda la independencia en el Perú, estuvo lejos de constituirse en régimen democrático burgués, debido a que la pervivencia de las relaciones sociales y valores del Perú colonial eran un obstáculo para tal propósito. Por tal motivo, aprender a vivir en un sistema republicano resultó un aprendizaje difícil, puesto que el ser y la conciencia del ayer virreinal todavía seguía vigente en nuestro medio. De esta forma, el naciente Estado reprodujo las formalidades de un Estado moderno, que esgrimía un doble discurso; por un lado, abrazaba los ideales de una prédica nativista y, por el otro, rechazaba la real integración de las masas no blancas en la vida política. Episodios El Perú Repúblicano 01 El Perú Repúblicano 02 El Perú Repúblicano 03 El Perú Repúblicano 04 El Perú Repúblicano 05 El Perú Repúblicano 06
49:45
March 11, 2022
Historia del Perú contado por ALAN GARCÍA
Historia: Historia del Peru Autor: Alan García El ex presidente del Perú, Alan García, en un inédito video del año 2003 explica la historia a través de los 200 años de república. El ex líder del APRA dio esta conferencia antes de su segundo gobierno que se llevó a cabo entre los años 2006-2011. García, muestra un amplio conocimiento sobre la historia del Perú y las diferentes etapas que nos ha tocado vivir como nación al igual que los recurrentes problemas de nuestra sociedad. Una interesante clase que vale la pena escuchar.
33:55
March 10, 2022