As negotiators, when we are trying to sell something the one thing that we all want to do is to avoid falling into any traps during our next negotiation.
However, the problem that we all face is that no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques we are using, traps can be difficult to spot and even harder to avoid.
If we can learn what they look like and how we can avoid them, then we can boost our chances of being able to reach the deal that we want with the other side.
Let’s face it – a negotiation is tough work.
However, if you want to make things just a little bit more difficult, then you can throw in some conflicts along the way and now you really have your work cut out for you. Negotiators can define conflict resolution as the informal or formal process that two or more parties use to find a peaceful solution to their dispute. These things have to be worked out using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques if you want the negotiation to continue towards a deal. A number of common cognitive and emotional traps, many of them unconscious, can exacerbate conflict and contribute to the need for conflict resolution.
How can a negotiator work though conflicts when they arise?
There are many different types of negotiations that we can engage in.
However, one of the most difficult is when we are called on to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to negotiate a conflict. In these situations we are going to be dealing with parties that may be very emotional and they may not be open to using logic and reason to find a way to resolve the issues that are being discussed. When this happens, we are going to have to find ways to maintain both our power and our status in order to keep the negotiations moving in the correct direction.
Our goal has to be to encourage the parties that are involved to cooperate with each other instead of competing with each other.
As negotiators, we all believe that when we reach the end of a negotiation and have a deal that both sides can agree to, the deal is done.
This is the time that we start to pack up our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques and move on to our next negotiation. However, there will be those times that things don’t turn out the way that we thought that they would. What can happen is that once the deal is done, there is always the possibility that the other side will demand a renegotiation of the deal. This can both surprise and anger you – why did they agree to deal if they now want to renegotiate it?
When this happens, you need to keep your anger under control and follow the following guidelines on how to proceed with re-negotiating with the other side.
We all know that it is tough to do a good job of negotiating a deal.
In fact, many people dread negotiation, not recognizing that they negotiate on a regular, even daily basis. Most of us face formal negotiations throughout our personal and professional lives in many different forms during which we all use many different forms of negotiation styles and negotiating techniques: bargaining over the price of a new car, discussing the terms of a new job offer, or hammering out a contract with a supplier.
What do these negotiations have in common, and what tools should we use to get what we need out of our everyday negotiations? In the end, these are the questions that every negotiator needs to find answers to.
So during a negotiation, when you know the other side is wrong in how they are viewing the world, what do you do?
If you are like most of us, you probably have a tendency to try to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to correct the other side’s perceptions. You may lecture them about why you’re right—and they’re wrong. The problem with doing this is that we know that this conflict resolution approach usually fails to resolve the conflict and often will only makes it worse.
What we really need are some conflict resolution strategies that can help us to get out of situations like this.
Let’s face it, by now you realize that not every negotiation is the same.
Each and every negotiation that we engage in has its own set of characteristics and qualities that set it apart from all of the other negotiations that we’ve been part of. However, the good news here is that all of the negotiations that we participate in fall into one of several different categories of negotiations. In order to make sure that we’re able to get the best deal possible out of a negotiation, we need to make sure that we understand what type of negotiation we are preparing to enter into.
Make sure that you understand what type of negotiation your next negotiation is.
The reason that a negotiation is necessary is because the other side has information that we don’t have.
Likewise, we know things that the other side does not know and the purpose of a negotiation is to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to exchange enough information so that both sides can agree on a deal. Now this is where things start to get interesting. Just exactly how much information should we share with the other side? Do we tell them everything and hope to be rewarded for being so open with them? Do we hide everything so that we don’t accidentally reveal too much?
This is a key question that every negotiator has to answer for themselves: during a negotiation what information do we need to keep secret?
So I’m willing to admit it – I like food. A lot.
When we are getting ready to negotiate with someone, there is always the possibility of conducting our negotiations with all of their negotiation styles and negotiating techniques while sharing a meal with them. As tasty as this may seem, it does lead to a much bigger question. If we conduct our negotiations while eating, can it boost the possibility of our ability to reach a deal with the other side?
It turns out that there are both advantages and downsides to eating while negotiating. Let’s take a look at both of them.
Ah, the good cop / bad cop tactic.
You know, we’ve seen this used in so many different TV shows and movies that you would sorta think that everyone would recognize it when it was being used on them by now. However, that’s where you would be wrong. It turns out that this tactic is still very popular as one of many negotiation styles and negotiating techniques and is very effective. During any negotiation that you are part of, the other side may have two of their people playing different roles. One seems as though they are eager to help you while the other is aggressively trying to get the best deal for them.
Guess what – the good cop / bad cop tactic is being used on you.
Every time that we start a negotiation, we begin with the best of intentions.
It really does not matter who we are negotiating with. The other side can be from down the road or from around the world, we simply want to reach a good deal with them. However, when the other side comes from another culture, problems can arise in our negotiations. Even with a common language and the best of intentions, negotiators from different cultures face unique challenges no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are being used.
What we need are solutions for avoiding intercultural barriers when preparing for negotiation between sides from different cultures.
As negotiators, every time that we enter into a negotiation we hope to be able to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to walk away with a deal that we can live with.
However, in order for that to happen we have to have taken the time to prepare for the negotiation. All too often this is exactly what we don’t do. When you haven’t done the necessary research, you are likely to leave value on the table and even to be taken advantage of by the other side. What you need is a negotiation preparation checklist that can help you avoid this scenario by helping you think through your position, the other side’s position, and what might happen when you get together. We do need to understand that business negotiations are highly unpredictable. It is possible that some of your prep work won’t turn out to be relevant, and new issues and problems will crop up and demand your attention.
However, having a solid understanding of what’s at stake and where each side is coming from will help you do a better job of thinking on your feet.
So how many times has this happened to you?
You are involved in a negotiation. Everything seems to be going pretty well – your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques seem to be working. A deal is starting to form up and both sides are starting to see what they may be able to walk away from this deal with when all of sudden something changes. A spoiler enters into the negotiation. Once this happens, something almost magical happens (in a bad way) and the deal that had looked so close jumps out the window and runs away never to be seen again.
Clearly a deal spoiler is not something that any of us want to invite to a negotiation; however, what can we do to prevent it from showing up unannounced?
There are times when something is being negotiated that we choose to not go it alone. Instead, we decide that we need some help.
When this happens we may bring in an agent to represent us to the other side . However, this can cause problems. If you do this, you wonder whether you can trust the agent to fully represent your best interests no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are being used.
The bad news is that according to principal agent theory, the answer often is “no.”
That negotiating thing is difficult enough without having to deal with all of the different people involved.
However, we need to admit that there will be times that no matter how difficult a negotiation is and no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques we are using, it will really be the people that we are dealing with that are the source of our greatest issues. When we find ourselves in a situation like this, we are going to have to be able to sit back, understand what is happening, and then come up with a plan for dealing with it.
If we can’t do this, then there is no way that we’re ever going to be able to reach a deal with these people!
As negotiators, every time that we go into a negotiation, we are optimistic that we are going to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to be successful.
We believe that we’re going to be able to work with the other side of the table and come up with a deal that both sides can live with. This kind of optimism is important to providing us with the drive to keep moving forward even when things can get tough. However, we all understand that sometimes negotiations don’t work out. There have been some pretty spectacular failures.
From a negotiator point of view, these failures can teach us a great deal about how to make sure that our next negotiation is a success.
No matter how good of a negotiator you think that you currently are and what negotiation styles and negotiating techniques you use, we all know that we can become better.
The struggle that we all have is that too often we don’t know how we can become better. Since we don’t know this, we can delay finding out what we need to do. The good news is that we all have to do basically the same things in order to become better negotiators.
Now we just need to make sure that we all understand what those things are.
Every negotiation that we are involved in has two different components to it.
The first is what is called “value creation”. This is, as its name implies, the process by which we attempt to put more issues on the table – we try to make the negotiation become bigger. The other part is called “value claiming” this is when we are involved in a single-issue negotiation and we want to get as much of the pre-existing value on the negotiating table for yourself—and away from the other side.
When it comes time to claim value during a negotiation, are you going to know how to do it?
As negotiators, we understand that when we enter into a negotiation we need to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to both collaborate and compete with the other side of the table.
It is our job to increase the pie of value for all parties, often by identifying differences across issues and making tradeoffs. At the same time, what we are trying to do it to claim as much of that larger pie for ourselves.
So what’s the best way to make this happen?
Let’s face it, negotiating has never been easy to do and with the arrival of the Covid-19 virus, it just suddenly became a lot harder.
These days nobody really wants to sit in a closed room for a long time with a group of people who may or may not have been practicing safe social distancing. However, life must go on and so negotiations do continue. Many of our negotiations have now moved online. Today’s tools allow this to happen relatively smoothly. However, even online disputes do pop up.
When they do, negotiators need to know how to deal with them.
So first off – congratulations!
The last negotiation that you were involved in went very well. You were able to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to get a deal that you feel proud of and you’ve been congratulated by everyone you know for conducting a professional negotiation. Right about now you are probably feeling a real sense of pride. Now it’s time for you to move on to your next negotiation. You feel that this next negotiation should go as well as the last one did.
However, is this feeling going to work in your favor or is it going to work against you?
So a negotiation is a business discussion that occurs between two adults, correct?
Well, in a lot of cases this is a correct statement. However, there are times when things can become heated during a negotiation. When one side feels as though they are not getting their way, they start to look for ways that they can convince you to change your mind. One tool that they have available to them besides using different negotiation styles and negotiating techniques is to threaten you.
If they decide to do this, how should you react?
Every negotiator wants to become better.
However, the big question that we all face is how to go about doing this. For some of us, reading books on negotiations or attending negotiations can expose us to new negotiation styles and negotiating techniques. However, it turns out that most of us would benefit the most if we were able to cast off some negotiating misunderstandings that we all seem to be carrying around with us.
These “negotiating lies” are baring us from improving our skills.
So – does the other side really mean what they are saying?
Will they really do what they are promising to do? I’m pretty sure that you and I can’t tell. The reason that we are so bad at detecting deception is because the most common signs of deception, such grammatical errors and as increased blinking, tend to be quite difficult to notice and interpret correctly. In addition, it may be difficult or impossible to determine whether the other side’s claim is true or not.
If we can’t count on being able to detect lies, a more fruitful approach may be to find ways to discourage the other side from engaging in deceptive tactics in negotiation in the first place.
As negotiators, our goal whenever we are starting a negotiation is to find a way to get the best deal possible.
This is not always an easy thing to make happen.
The best negotiators are the ones who can use their negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to both create value during the negotiation and then claim that value as a part of a deal. In order to become better at making this happen, the following 10 negotiation skills can be used.
When we are involved in a negotiation that involves prices, we need to keep in mind that no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are being used, it’s the first number that either side presets that will play an important determining factor in how the rest of the negotiation goes.
It turns out that opening offers have a strong effect on price negotiations. What happens is that the first offer typically serves as an anchor that strongly influences any discussions that follows. Where things can start to get crazy is when you realize that even random numbers can have a dramatic impact on people’s judgments and decisions.
What all of this means is that negotiators need to know how to anchor prices during a negotiation.
So just exactly when is a negotiation over?
I’m pretty sure that by now you know that this is a loaded question – a negotiation is never over. Even after we’ve been able to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to reach a deal with the other side, we still need to make sure that they will keep their word and do what they promised that they would do. However, things can get just a little bit trickier if after the deal has been signed the other side comes back to you. The reason that they’ve come back is because they want a renegotiation of the deal.
What’s a negotiator to do now?
Let’s face it, during a negotiation things can go wrong.
You were making progress using your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to work towards reaching a deal one minute and then all of a sudden you find yourself staring at an impasse. You have made offers to the other side, they have made offers to you and you thought that you were approaching middle ground; however, it now appears as though you are not close enough to agree on a deal. Now what is a negotiator to do?
This might be the time for you to start to use MESOs in this negotiation.
In addition to different negotiation styles and negotiating techniques there are a number of different things that negotiators need to be able to deal with during a negotiation.
Being overconfident is one of these. What we need to understand is that if we allow ourselves to become overconfident, then there is a good chance that it is going to affect both our judgement and our decision making process.
What we need are ways to detect when we are becoming overconfident and ways to deal with it when it happens.
Negotiators view every negotiation as a type of game.
hey show up ready to use their negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to compete with the other side in order to see who can walk away being a winner. I’m pretty sure that we all realize that we should be cooperating, but instead all too often we end up competing to see who can win. The reason that we do this is because we arrive at the negotiation with the assumption that we’re dealing with a fixed pie – there is only so much to be had, and somebody is going to walk away with more and somebody is going to walk away with less. We view a negotiation as being a win-lose competitive situation.
What we really should be doing is working with the other side to find more value in the negotiation.
During a negotiation, sometimes something amazing happens.
When one side presents a number to the other side, that side can all of suddenly end up irrationally fixating on that first number that was put forth at the bargaining table. This number is called “the anchor”. The other side (or us) can become fixated with it no matter how outlandish it may be. Even when we know the anchor has limited relevance, we can sometimes fail to sufficiently adjust our judgments away from it. This is an example of the anchoring effect in negotiations.
Negotiators can use anchoring to reduce risk in a negotiation.
When you jump into a negotiation, do you know what you want to get out of the negotiation?
Perhaps a much more important question is does the other side have a set of expectations regarding what they want to get out of the negotiations no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are used? It turns out that as a negotiator, one of your responsibilities is to make sure that during the negotiations you take the time to carefully manage the other side’s expectations. You need to make sure that when the negotiation is over, their expectations have been met.
Now comes the big question – do you know how to go about doing this?
When we enter into a negotiation, we are thinking about one thing: what we’d like to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to get out of the negotiation.
Let’s face it, we’re rather self-centered when it comes to planning how our next negotiation is going to turn out. As I’m pretty sure that we are all well aware of by now, thinking only of ourselves when it comes to negotiating can lead to some long and trying negotiations.
What if there was a better way? It turns out that it is and it has a name: logrolling.
In the world of negotiating, despite all of the different principled negotiation styles and negotiating techniques that get used, there are a number of tactics that have achieve classic status.
One such technique is called the “good cop / bad cop” approach. You’ll encounter this when you sit down to negotiate and one member of the other side says that they really want to be able to reach an agreement with you and at the same time another member of the other side decides to present you with an outrageous, even insulting, offer. A member of the other side urges them to make a concession. This makes that member of the other side seem like a trusted friend. You find yourself taking his advice and working hard to bridge your gap with person who made the insulting offer, even proposing concessions you never intended to make.
Guess what – you just fell for the good cop / bad cop tactic.
Negotiating is hard.
Negotiating when you are a woman is even harder. Historically women have not been as aggressive as men. They have been willing to settle for what is offered to them. However, to truly be successful negotiators women need to start to think about what a man would be able to achieve in their position.
What women need to start to do in negotiations is to start to employ more assertive behavior.
Negotiators are always looking for ways that they can get more value out of their next negotiation.
Although there may be many different ways to accomplish this such as using different negotiation styles and negotiating techniques, one way that we tend to overlook too often is by negotiating a right of first refusal. Just in case anyone doesn’t remember what the right of first refusal is, also known as a matching right or right of first offer, it is defined as being a guarantee that one side to a business deal can match any offer that the other side later receives for what is being negotiated.
As negotiators we need to realize that the rights of first refusal could be a win-win tool that can enhance your negotiation skills, but to ensure that it is mutually beneficial, it needs to be negotiated with care.
As negotiators, there are a few books that I’m guessing that we have all pretty much read.
One of the classic negotiating books that everyone should have on their shelves is “Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In”. In this book, the authors explained that negotiators don’t have to choose between either waging a strictly competitive, win-lose negotiation battle or caving in to avoid conflict. What they said was that negotiators can and should look for negotiation strategies that can help both sides get more of what they want. If we take the time to listen closely to each other, treat each other fairly, and explore options to increase value, we can find ways of getting to yes that reduce the need to rely on hard-bargaining tactics and unnecessary concessions. Great idea.
Now exactly how can we go about making this happen?
In the world of negotiating there are number of classic questions that we all deal with each time we start a negotiation.
One of the biggest is whether or not we should be the ones who make the first offer. The answer to this question is generally “yes” – lots of research has gone into what is called “anchoring bias” and it tells us that no matter what negotiation styles and negotiating techniques are being used, we should be the ones who move first. What is anchoring in negotiation you ask?
In a negotiation centered on either price or another issue, the party who moves first typically benefits by “anchoring” the discussion that follows on their offer—even if the anchor is arbitrary.
Let’s face it – you can’t negotiate without having some emotions come into play.
We all tend to get upset, excited, depressed, and elated at different times during a negotiation because of the negotiation styles and negotiating techniques that are involved. Without a lot of surprise it turns out that the people who study such things are learning about the connections among emotions, negotiators, and decision making.
Since such emotions can influence the results of our negotiations, it sure seems as though we should take some time and understand how our emotions can influence our outcomes.
When we enter into a negotiation, we are facing a number of different challenges.
One of the biggest can be cultural barriers to communication if the other side comes from a different background than you do. In order to overcome such issues, we need to find different ways to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to communicate with the other side using manners, body language, and perhaps even our physical appearance. When we are negotiating with someone online, a number of the ways that we communicate will not be available to us.
However, we are still going to have to find a way to build a sense of rapport with them.
So I’ve got a quick question for you: what’s the goal of your next negotiation?
I’m pretty sure that you’re going to tell me that you want to be able to reach a deal with the other side. I’d say that not only do you want to reach a deal with them, but you want to reach a deal with them that both sides believe that they can live with.
This is the essence of win-win negotiation. I think that we can all agree that it’s something that we’d all like to be able to do; however, the big question is how can we use win-win negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to get what we want?
It goes without saying that when we sit down at the negotiating table, both sides have a different view of the world.
We both want something and in order to get what we want, the other side is going to have to be willing to give something up. The fact that we all have different preferences means that if we are not careful our negotiations can grind to a halt.
What we need to get good at is using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to find ways to create mutually beneficial agreements during our negotiations that both sides will be able to live with.
Negotiating is all about having a discussion with the other side while using your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques with the hope of changing the way that they see the world.
As expected, this kind of change does not always happen easily – a negotiation can cause conflicts to occur. When an issue flares up and conflict resolution is required, the outcome can be predictable: the conflict gets bigger and bigger, with each side blaming the other in increasingly angry terms. The dispute may end up in litigation, and the relationship may be forever damaged.
As negotiators, what we need are negotiation strategies that we can use to resolve situations like this.
We are all human.
What this means is that for some odd and unexplained reason no mater which negotiation styles or negotiating techniques we are using, we all seem to like things that come in threes. In our world it seems as though all good things come in groups of three. Think about it, your childhood was filled with three bears, three kings, three little pigs, etc.
It turns out that for negotiators, things that come in groups of three can be rewarding as well.
The reason that we enter into a negotiation is because we want to be able to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to reach a deal with the other side.
The challenge that we have is that what we want and what they want may be two very different things. The whole purpose of a negotiation is for us to find a way to build bridges between our two opposing camps and find some common ground that both of us can live with. The one thing that we don’t want to have happen is for us to run into an impasse – that would be a negotiation failure.
What can we do to make sure that this does not happen?
I can only speak for myself, but I have no problem sharing with you that during a negotiation I can become very, very frustrated with how things are going.
No matter if your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques are causing things to go too slow, go off in the wrong direction, or, even worse, not go anywhere. I start to become angrier and angrier as time passes. This, of course, leads to a fairly classic negotiating question.
When you become angry during a negotiation, should you hide your emotions or should you show them to the other side?
Not every negotiation that we are involved in will work out for us.
In fact, some of them will fail. When we think of failed negotiations, generally we picture negotiators walking away from the table in disappointment. It turns out that that’s only one type of disappointing negotiation. It turns out that there is another type of failure when it comes to negotiating. A negotiation can be considered to be a failure when both sides come to regret the deal over time as well as those deals that fall apart during implementation.
As negotiators, we need to learn how to avoid creating deals that will become failures.
It eventually happens to all of us: you are in the middle of negotiation when you realized that things have become deadlocked.
There are a lot of different ways that you may have found yourself in this situation such as after both sides have used their negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to exchange a series of offers and counteroffers. With each of you stuck in your very different positions, you can’t seem to find a solution that pleases you both.
What’s a negotiator to do now?
When we negotiate, it’s all about winning.
Our goal is to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to create a deal that the other side will agree with and which is a win for us. We can define a “win” in a lot of different ways: a lower price, a higher price, more time to deliver, delivery sooner then expected, etc. However, somewhat surprisingly, not all negotiations work out this way.
Sometimes lose-lose is the way that you want to go.
When you are negotiating a sale, you’d like to be able to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques get the other side to agree to the offer that you are making to them.
There are a number of different ways to make this happen. In sales negotiations, making the first offer is often a smart move. The reason that this is a good idea is because the first offer can anchor the discussion that follows and can have a powerful effect on the final outcome. However, if the other side moves faster than you and they make the first offer, you’ll need to be prepared to frame your counteroffer carefully.
You are going to need some sales negotiation techniques to get what you want.
The reason that we are willing to invest the time in a negotiation is because we believe that by using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques we’ll be able to eventually reach a deal with the other side.
However, in order to make that happen, at some point in time the negotiations have to come to an end. We need to close them down. In the movie Glengarry Glen Ross Alec Baldwin’s character tells his employees “ABC: Always Be Closing”. This is not a good idea – it’s a bit cutthroat and it means that you have to ignore the other side’s needs.
What’s the right way to wrap up a negotiation?
We’ve all heard about mutually beneficial agreements, but can anyone say just exactly what they are?
By one definition, a mutually beneficial agreement occurs when both sides of the table attempt to use their negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to grab as much as they possibly can from the limited amount of items that are being negotiated. I think that a much better definition has to do with taking the time to create more value during a negotiation and then making sure that everyone is taken care of in the final deal.
Great words, but just exactly how does one go about doing this?
In the world of negotiating, we all run into negotiating situations that can be stressful.
The other side gets upset with us for some reason, they rant and rave and make a wide variety of threats, we try to keep things moving forward and ultimately if we are lucky we are able to reach a deal with them. Just imagine how hard it would be to be a member of the New York City Police Department’s Hostage Negotiation Team. Every negotiation that they go into is going to be stressful.
How the heck do they deal with negotiations like that?
So first off let’s all agree on something: I don’t really care if you love or hate President Donald Trump.
That’s not what I’m talking about. Instead, considering that he’s in a very powerful position in which he gets to talk to world leaders on a daily basis, I’m interested in how good of a negotiator he is. He did write / co-author a book on negotiating and so you’d think that he’d be pretty good at this stuff.
Let’s take a look and see what techniques he has been using as a part of his presidency so far.
You might think that every principled negotiation starts out the same way: with a blank sheet of paper.
However, in a number of situations that I’ve found myself in this is not the case. Instead, what has happened is that for whatever reason because of the negotiation styles and negotiating techniques being used, my client allowed themselves to get sucked into signing a bad deal. Now they find themselves living with a deal that is not in their best interests and they want to have it changed. Enter the (re) negotiator.
What’s the best way to turn a bad deal into a better deal?
What would the perfect negotiation look like to you?
Would it happen if you sat down at the negotiating table, presented the other side with an offer without using any of your negotiation styles or negotiating techniques, they accepted it and everything was over and done? Immediately sensing that you asked for too little, you would probably feel as though you had screwed up. In a negotiation, we’re often excited to close a deal. But at times, the fact that we’ve “won” a prize means that we’ve become the latest victim of the “winner’s curse”.
The good news for you is that there are steps you can take to avoid the winner’s curse in negotiations.
If we want to become better negotiators, how can we go about doing this?
It turns out that the best bargaining tips should offer ways to enhance your bargaining power in negotiation no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are being used. If we want to make this happen, then we must cultivate a strong BATNA, or best alternative to a negotiated agreement. As you can well imagine, the more appealing your best alternative is, the more comfortable you will feel asking for more in your current negotiation – you will be secure in the knowledge that you have a good alternative option waiting in the wings. BATNA development is more complex than just searching for a good Plan B.
Let’s talk about bargaining tips and strategies for negotiators seeking to improve their BATNA.
As negotiators, what we would all like to be able to do during each of our negotiations is to find a way to create a “win-win” situation.
These are the negotiations in which both sides emerge feeling that they got a good deal in the end no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques were used. However, finding this kind of solution to a negotiation can be a real challenge.
What we need are ways to make this happen even in even the trickiest negotiations.
If you sit back and think about it, what are you really trying to accomplish during a negotiation with all of your fancy negotiation styles and negotiating techniques?
If you are like most of us, what you would like to be able to do is to discover additional value that nobody realized was there, perhaps make some useful trades with the other side, and finally come up with a deal that will exceed both sides initial expectations.
All of this sounds wonderful; however, how can a negotiator actually make this happen?
One of the more popular phrases that has been used during the past few years has been “emotional intelligence”.
This term first burst into the cultural imagination in 1995 with the publication of psychologist Daniel Goleman’s book. Negotiation experts have predicted that scoring high on this personality trait would boost one’s negotiating outcomes and have found many successful negotiation examples using emotional intelligence.
Does this mean that during your next negotiation you need to pay more attention to your emotional intelligence?
Let’s face it: there are a lot of different types of negotiations that we can find ourselves in the middle of any any point in time.
As negotiators we need to be able to recognize each one of them and then take the appropriate action in order to maximize the chances of being able to get the deal that we want. One type of negotiation that we most often find ourselves involved in is called a distributive negotiation.
Do you know what to do when this happens?
One of the most powerful negotiation styles and negotiating techniques that a negotiator has available to them is what is called “anchoring”.
Anchoring occurs when a negotiation is starting and you make an initial offer to the other side. This offer does not have to be one that you think that they would actually accept. It can be quite arbitrary. The power of an anchor offer is that it pulls the discussion in its direction.
How can you use this powerful technique to your best advantage?
Let’s face it: conflict happens in every negotiation.
The very process of negotiating using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques with someone seems to open the door to allowing conflict to come in. How do we deal with conflict when it shows up? All too often our first response is to try to find a way to correct the way that the other side is seeing the world. We’ll take the time to tell them why they are wrong and, of course, why we are right. The problem with this approach is that it rarely works and will often make the current situation even worse.
What we need is a different way to deal with conflict situations.
When you are in the middle of a negotiation, how do decisions get made?
All too often a lot of us end up leaving these types of decisions up to chance no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques we are using. These decisions can take on a lot of different disguises including if we are talking with the best person to be doing the negotiating for the other side, if we’ll negotiate in person, what will be talked about, how long it will last, etc.
We need to take the time to ask ourselves about how we want to design the deal that we want to get.
When we think about negotiating, we tend to think about how to apply our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to business situations.
We may be buying or selling supplies, purchasing a location, or trying to schedule the delivery of a product. However, it turns out that our negotiating skills are also useful for us when we are not at work. In our personal lives, we encounter a number of different situations that call for our particular set of skills.
One classic situation, whether for us or for someone that we know, is the purchase of a new car.
The next time that you enter into a negotiation, how do you want the other side to view you?
If you are like most of us who have had our impression of what a world-class negotiator looks like shaped by television and the movies: when we use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques we want to come across as being a tough guy, unyielding and bound to get our way no matter what. However, what researchers have discovered is that negotiators with a reputation for collaboration rather than competition tend to do better. You can’t fully control what others think and say about you, none of us can, but you can find ways to seize opportunities to appear as cooperative as possible during and after a business negotiation.
Here’s how to do this.
When we picture ourselves in a negotiation, we often see ourselves using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to make a point.
Or perhaps at the board drawing out a scenario. Or maybe even handing papers to the other side for them to review. What we don’t often see is ourselves on the defensive. However, if the other side consists of skilled negotiators, there is a very good chance that at some point in time during the negotiations we’re going to end up with our backs to the wall.
What we need are some defensive strategies that we can use when this happens to us.
When we enter into a negotiation, we’d like to think that our minds are clear and that we are gong to be able to think systematically throughout the negotiations as we use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques.
However, all too often it turns out that we are being affected by bias that can change how we think. Most of us believe that we have the ability to determine the difference between a situation in which we can rely on our intuition and those that require us to take a step back and give things some more thought.
However, studies have shown that in most cases we are wrong.
The next time that you start a negotiation, what will be running through your mind?
If you are like most of us, you are excited to get started and you have a fairly clear idea what negotiation styles and negotiating techniques you’ll be using to get what you want out of this negotiation. However, have you really done your homework?
If you want your next negotiation to be successful, then what you do before the negotiation starts may determine how it turns out.
When we start a negotiation, we are filled with hope that by using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques we’ll be able to eventually walk away with a deal.
However, during every negotiation we are faced with two possible mistakes we can make. The first is that we end up walking away from a deal that we should have agreed to. The other is that we end up agreeing to a deal that we should never have agreed to.
How can we avoid making both of these errors?
So who will you be negotiating with during your next negotiation? Are you going to be dealing with a hard bargainer?
There are some negotiators out there who seem to think that if they want to get their way in a negotiation then they are going to have to use hard-bargaining negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to make it happen. This means that they’ll have no problems resorting to using extreme demands, unethical behavior and perhaps even threats to get what they want. These are the very negotiators who don’t realize that negotiation is not a win-lose activity.
However, since you’ll be dealing with them, what should you do when they start to apply their hard bargaining tactics on you?
When we are engaged in a negotiation, no matter what negotiation styles or negotiating techniques are being used we can make the mistake of falling into common cognitive traps if we are not careful.
These traps are sneaky and if we are not on the lookout for them then they can sneak up on us and they’ll end up holding us back from accomplishing what we are trying to do in this negotiation. When we do this, we end up making the negotiation that we are involved in more difficult than it has to be.
In order to prevent this from happening, we need to learn how to identify the four different traps.
As negotiators we all understand that one of the most powerful tools that we have are concessions.
However, it’s how we view concessions that really matters. All too often a negotiator can come to view concessions as being a big deal – they are something that has value to us and making a concession that really means something is going to end up costing us something in terms of money, time, or something else. However, this is where we may be wrong. It turns out that we can often keep a negotiation moving along simply by making a token concession.
This type of concession costs us very little, but it can make a big impact on our negotiation.
So here’s a question for you negotiator: just exactly what is a mutually beneficial agreement?
Sure, we all think that we’d like to be able to use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to reach one of these in our next negotiation, but would we recognize it if we saw it? One way to define this is to view a mutually beneficial agreement as being one in which each side grabs as much as it can from a finite pot of resources. Hopefully you don’t view it this way. A much better way to view it is as competitive value-claiming with collaborative value creation.
Now the big question becomes just exactly how to go about doing this.
If there is one thing that all negotiators know and understand is that in order to be able to reach a deal with the other side, you first have to be able to trust them.
We also understand that during the course of a negotiation, trust is something that may develop naturally over time. However, sometimes we can’t wait that long. If we don’t trust the other side, we can still make safe deals with them. These types of deals will involve using our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to make few concessions, few tradeoffs, and we won’t share very much information with the other side. However, deals like this may mean that we are missing out on big opportunities.
What we need to do is to find way to build trust on the fly…
Let’s face it – there are a lot of different moving parts to the game of negotiating with all of the different negotiation styles and negotiating techniques that are out there.
When we spend time thinking about how we can become better negotiators, it can be all too easy for us to very quickly become overwhelmed.
When this happens, we generally end up delaying taking any steps to become better. In order to take this large task and break it down into something that is more manageable, we need some guidelines on how to proceed.
So here’s an interesting thought for you: when is a negotiation over and done with?
I suspect that most of us would say once the deal has been signed by all parties. It turns out that this is not the case. Instead, reaching a deal with the other side and having that deal signed may just be the start of your negotiations.
Are you ready for this?
Congratulations – you are a negotiator! This is an impressive accomplishment. However, now you are facing the question of what’s next?
We would all like to become better negotiators and boost our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques; however, often we find ourselves unsure of how we can make this happen. The good news is that being a negotiator means that you’ve mastered a large set of skills. In order to become a better negotiator, you simply have to identify additional key skills and master those also.
Let’s take a look at what you still have to learn.
This business of negotiating is a tricky business indeed. No, we don’t always want to show up at the negotiating table and use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to lay all of our cards out in front of the other side. However, there appears to be a fine line when it comes to lying.
Just exactly how far is too far?
More importantly for you as a negotiator, how should you handle it if when you are negotiating with someone you start to realize that they are not being truthful with you?
Yes, yes – I’m sure that we’ve all at least heard of the book “Getting To Yes” and with a little luck a number of us have actually read it. The gist of the book is that you can use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to negotiate better deals if you can find a way to create a deal that benefits both parties.
This “win-win” deal is highly desirable, but at times it can appear to be very hard to achieve.
As negotiators, what we need are some tips for our next negotiation that will show us how we can make win-win work for us.
If ever there was a fundamental question in negotiation, it would probably not be which negotiation styles or negotiating techniques to use, but rather it would have to be the classic “should I make the first offer or wait for the other side to make the first offer” question.
For the longest time, the thinking went that we should sit back and allow the other side to make the first offer. The reason for this was so that we could learn valuable information based on what they asked for. However, negotiating research has shown that the cost of waiting for the other side to make an offer far outweighs the benefits of us making the first offer.
Looks like we’ve got some research to do…
Let’s face it – negotiating is not an easy thing to do. There is all of the preparation that goes into it, there is the effort of actually doing it using all of our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques, and then, with a little luck, there will be a deal that both sides will agree to when it’s all over.
Unfortunately it can be all too easy for us to do one of the two things that we really should not do: reach a deal with the other side when we really should not or walk away from a deal that we should have agreed to.
In order to prevent this from occurring we need to take the time to prepare for each negotiation and, as a part of doing this, take the time to analyze the zone of possible agreement (ZOPA) for this negotiation.
If this was a perfect world, then every time that you went into a negotiation you would be facing someone who was doing this for the first time. They would be unsure of themselves and they would end up making all sorts of very basic mistakes.
However, it’s not a perfect world and more often than not you are going to find yourself sitting across the table from a skilled negotiator who is wise to all of your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques.
When this happens, you are going to have to make sure that you have the defensive negotiation strategies that you’ll need in order to get the job done.
So just exactly how does a negotiation end? Either both parties give up and walk away with no deal being reached, or you are somehow able to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to find a way to close the deal.
It’s this deal closing thing that can be so tricky to do sometimes. In fact, we can find ourselves in situations where we have tried to wrap things up, get the other side to agree to a deal, and we’ve failed. When we find ourselves in this kind of a situation, what is a negotiator to do? Give up?
Nope, you need to go back in there and try to wrap this negotiation up. You just might have been doing it all wrong.
Welcome to the modern world that we are all living in! In the old days, if you wanted to negotiate with someone you had to show up, sit down at the negotiation table, and then proceed to use your negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to have a lengthy discussion with them.
In our modern times, this is no longer necessary – we can now negotiate online. However, as negotiators we need to understand that negotiating online is very different from negotiating in person. There are different challenges that we are gong to have to be prepared to deal with.
Despite the fact that we’ll be negotiating online, we are still going to be looking for ways to create both value and rapport with the other side.
At lot of us go into a negotiation like we are getting ready to go to war. We do our research, make sure that we know who we’re going to be going up against, prepare our demands and then use our negotiation styles and negotiating techniques to charge into battle. To us a negotiation is all about competition. The more points that we can score, the better the chance that we’re going to win this negotiation and the other side is going to lose. However, maybe we’ve been looking at this all wrong. Is it possible that the goal of any negotiation should be about creating value?