The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) presents the Neurosalience podcast. In this series of interviews you’ll discover the latest developments in techniques for measuring brain structure and function. You’ll hear about how these tools can provide insight into the function of the brain from childhood to old age, and why these normal processes may be affected in neurological and psychiatric conditions. Dr. Peter Bandettini interviews brain scientists of all types and discusses the latest developments, controversies and challenges related to their work in the field of brain mapping.
S2 EP20: Turning the microphone around on Peter Bandettini
Over the thirty-nine episodes of this podcast, Peter Bandettini, PhD (twitter: @fmri_today), has guided interesting conversations with brain scientists of all types about the latest developments, controversies, findings, and challenges in the field of brain mapping. Of course, Dr. Bandettini is an impressive and fascinating scientist in his own right, so we on the Neurosalience production team thought it was time to turn things around and shine the spotlight on Peter. About our "guest": Dr. Bandettini is Chief of the Section on Functional Imaging Methods at the National Institute of Mental Health, as well as Director of the Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Core Facility and Director of the Center for Multimodal Neuroimaging. Peter received a bachelor’s degree in Physics from Marquette University and his Ph.D. from the Medical College of Wisconsin, followed by postdoctoral training at the Massachusetts General Hospital Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Center and Harvard Medical School, before returning to the Medical College of Wisconsin as assistant professor. In 1999, Dr. Bandettini moved to the National Institute of Mental Health, where he has been ever since. As of this recording, his research has been cited almost 44,000 times, with 5 of his papers having over 2000 citations, 10 papers with over 1000 citations, and 20 with over 500 citations. Dr. Bandettini has also written the book on functional MRI published by MIT Press, entitled, appropriately, “fMRI”. Peter has been highly involved in the Organization for Human Brain Mapping since essentially the beginning, including serving as President, Program Chair, and scientific advisory board member. Peter is also a Fellow of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, where he was awarded the ISMRM Gold Medal in 2020, and he was previously the editor-in-chief of the journal NeuroImage, along with serving as associate editor for that journal and many others. Through all of this, Dr. Bandettini has advised numerous grad students and postdocs, some of whom you’ll hear about in today’s episode. We’ll hear about Peter’s approach to mentorship, to science in general, and to science communication, and to much, much more. About our guest host: Kevin Sitek, PhD, is a research scientist at the University of Pittsburgh. Kevin joined the OHBM Communications Committee in 2020 and has worked with the Neurosalience production team since the podcast started in early 2021. You can find Kevin on twitter at @krsitek.
April 13, 2022
S2 EP19: Eric Wong - Uncharted territory: Establishing fMRI before it was cool
Eric Wong is Professor and Associate Director for Imaging Hardware at the University of California, San Diego. He received his Ph.D. in Biophysics in 1991 from the Medical College of Wisconsin where he was the key person in starting fMRI at the Medical College of Wisconsin. In this podcast, Eric and Peter start by revisiting when they first met and the flurry of excitement and activity when fMRI was just starting - at the time when they were both graduate students. They talk about Eric’s work in MRI hardware, perfusion imaging, and MRI physics, and then transition into his current work in computational neuroscience where he is spending most of his time and attention. Eric also shares some thoughts on a better approach to understanding human intelligence and why it may not be as complicated as it seems.
March 23, 2022
S2 EP18: Randy McIntosh, Brain modelling and the road to all-inclusive clinical care
Randy McIntosh, Ph.D. has been a scientist at the Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre at the University of Toronto since 1994 and, since the start of 2022, is the new Director of the Simon Fraser University Institute for Neuroscience and Neurotechnology in Burnaby British Columbia - just outside of Vancouver. Randy obtained his PhD in 1992 from the University of Texas at Austin in Psychology and Neuroscience and did a postdoc at the NIH with Barry Horwitz until 1994. His group uses neuroimaging and computational modeling to understand the dynamics of healthy brains as well as those from many different clinical populations, lending insight and providing potential biomarkers through comparing his dynamic brain models with empirical data. He is also part an international consortium called the TheVirtualBrain which is an open science neuroinformatics platform for modeling the brain. Along with the exciting news of Randy’s new position, he has also just published a two part book called A Complex Journey - which is a sci-fi novel that delves into the complexity of the brain. Discussion: In this discussion we talk about his research in modeling brain dynamics, and specifically about this ambitious yet increasingly impactful project involving The Virtual Brain. We also delve into the different kinds of brain modeling approaches and what these different models provide. Lastly we talk about his new position as well as his new institute’s unique goals of more effectively translating neuroscience to all inclusive clinical care for individuals.
March 09, 2022
S2 EP17: Dick Passingham, What has Neuroimaging taught us over the years?
Today we are discussing the general question of how neuroimaging (and mostly fMRI) fit into the landscape of neuroscience research approaches. More specifically we discuss the question of what, over the years, has neuroimaging taught us about the brain? In this fascinating discussion, we work through many related topics and get a solid sense of Dr. Passingham’s perspectives on these - including his views on mentoring, a critique or refinement of David Marr’s three criteria for understanding the brain, the need to put forth falsifiable hypotheses, his enthusiasm for for Optically Pumped Magnetometers, and the need for an array of tools and approaches - not just fMRI - for understanding the brain. Guest: Dick Passingham, Ph.D. is currently Emeritus Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, and is also an Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. In addition, he is Emeritus Honorary Principal Investigator at the Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging at University College London. His career has been spent at these two institutions, and from 1991–1995 also at the MRC Cyclotron Unit at the Hammersmith Hospital London. He has published over 200 research papers and eight books. Lastly, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2009 in recognition of his achievements.
February 23, 2022
Season 2 Episode 16: Grace Lindsay - Computational neuroscience and her book, "Models of the Mind"
In this episode Dr Peter Bandettini and co-host Dr Brendan Ritchie interview Dr Grace Lindsay. They find out about her new book 'Models of the mind' and about the process of writing a book. In doing so, they consider different types of brain models, from simply descriptive to more mechanistic, from too simple to overfitted. They describe the challenge in neuroscience of network modelling - the many unknowns and limited data and how output of the model may help inform its accuracy. They then discuss specific models, such as Deep Neural Networks, and how this type of modelling may progress in the future. Last, Lindsay gives some thoughts about the future hopes, philosophies, and strategies of modelling - how doing it well is both an art and a science.
February 11, 2022
S2 EP15: Pedro Valdes-Sosa. EEG Analysis: past, present and future.
In this episode, we discuss what was important to Pedro early in his career. He describes his first forays into clinical use of EEG back in the 70s and then we go on to discuss some of his highly creative work in deeply interpreting EEG signals today. Later we discuss his current visiting position in Chengdu, China and a growing EEG database as well as his international consortium. We touch briefly on the current state of medical care in Cuba as well as how Cuba has dealt with COVID-19. This episode was recorded on October 22nd 2021. Guest: Pedro Valdes-Sosa is the General Vice-Director for Research of the Cuban Neurosciences Center, which he co-founded in 1990. He studied medicine at the University of Havana, and graduated in 1972. He also studied Mathematics in 1973. He obtained his Ph.D. in 1978. In 1979 he did a PostDoc on "Neurometrics and Computational Techniques" and "Biophysical Modeling of brain electrical activity" with Prof. E. Roy John at the Brain Research Lab of New York University. He is a full member of the Cuban Academy of Sciences, and the Latin American Academy of Sciences, associate member of the International Center for Theoretical Physics. Pedro is known not only for his innovation and rigor in EEG analysis but also for his highly collaborative work and passion to improve science development, communication and dissemination in less developed countries. He’s currently flying back and forth between Havana and Chengdu, China where he is developing pooled databases for quantitative EEG.
January 26, 2022
S2 EP14: Lucina Uddin, Mapping the Changing Brain with Functional and Structural MRI
Peter talks to Dr. Lucina Uddin about the constant struggle shared by all scientists in the field of neuroimaging to find the right paradigms, acquisition tools, and analysis approaches to add insight into fundamentals of brain organization and how it relates to behavior. They talk about cognitive flexibility, Autism, the salience network, and the need for an ontology of network nomenclature so that the field can better communicate, share, and understand findings. They also discuss the NIH’s goal of having a research domain criteria (RDoC) to organize and understand disorders in a more brain data-driven manner. Lastly, they discuss her perspective on advancing diversity in science. It was a fun conversation that put in perspective the many challenges facing functional brain imaging research. Guest: Lucina Uddin received her B.S. in 2001 in Neuroscience and her Ph.D in Psychology/Cognitive Neuroscience, both from UCLA. From 2006 to 2008 she did a postdoc at NYU School of Medicine and from 2008 to 2010 performed a second postdoc at Stanford Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience Laboratory. From 2010 to 2013 she was an instructor in the Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science. In 2014 she moved to the University of Miami and in 2018 became, as an Associate Professor, the Director of Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience Division. She is a Handling Editor of the journal NeuroImage and Senior Editor of the journal Network Neuroscience. She’s written two books, “Insula” in 2014 and “Salience Network of the Human Brain” in 2016. She won the OHBM young investigator award in 2017 and the OHBM diversity award in 2021. Over the past 15 years, Lucina has rapidly risen in the ranks of respected cognitive neuroscientists who effectively and creatively use cutting edge MRI and fMRI. She and her lab investigate the relationship between brain connectivity and cognition in typical and atypical development, welding the tools of functional connectivity analyses of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as structural connectivity analyses of diffusion-weighted imaging data. For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit ohbmbrainmappingblog.com
January 10, 2022
S2 Ep13: A deep history of fMRI with Ken Kwong, Robert Turner, Ravi Menon
Functional MRI is a profoundly successful and powerful technique that so many of us use. It’s still developing and adding to our insight about the human brain. While MRI was developed in the late 1970’s and early 80’s, it would be another decade before it was realized that MRI could be used to detect and map, non-invasively, human brain activation. My guests today, Ken Kwong, Bob Turner, and Ravi Menon were the first who showed this capability. Ken’s successful experiment in early May of 1991 was arguably the first. Ravi, who was the key player in the Minnesota group, had produced solid fMRI results by the summer of 1991, and I had my first successful experiment in Sept of 1991. Bob Turner was a key player in his physiologic manipulation experiments in Cats. He collaborated with Ken, and also showed results of his own at 4T shortly after as well. We were all there at the Society for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Meeting in San Francisco in August of 1991 when Tom Brady (who headed MGH NMR Center at the time), first showed in his plenary lecture, the crude but stunning jaw dropping brain activation movies. The moment I saw that, I knew what I wanted to do for the rest of my career. We have them all here to reflect on those heady days, what led up to their findings, and the bright future of fMRI. Guests: Ken Kwong has been conducting MRI research at the Mass General Hospital since the late 80’s when he pioneered diffusion imaging, as well as perfusion imaging approaches. He’s currently associate professor at the MGH Martinos Center. Robert Turner trained with inventor of Echo Planar Imaging, Peter Mansfield, among others, and while working at the NIH, performed those first critical experiments, demonstrating BOLD contrast as well as obtaining some of the first results in humans at 4T using his home built gradient coil. One of Bob’s major contributions to the field was his early work in gradient coil design - which remains fundamental to what we do. From 2006 to 2014 he was the Director of the Department of Neurophysics at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig and is currently retired and living in Cambridge, England. Ravi Menon was a post doc at Minnesota and a driving force in the effort to produce functional images using a highly challenging non-EPI approach at 4T. He has been a steady contributor to fMRI methods ever since and is currently a Robarts Scientist and Canada Research Chair in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Co-Scientific Director of BrainsCAN which is Canada First Research Excellence Fund, Scientific Director, Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, and Professor of Medical Biophysics, Medical Imaging & Psychiatry at The University of Western Ontario
December 17, 2021
S2 Ep12: Maurizio Corbetta. Attention, Clinical Use of Neuroimaging, and a provocative theory for what Resting State fMRI actually is
Maurizio Corbetta is Full Professor and Chair of Neurology in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Padua, Italy. He is also the founding director of the new Padua Neuroscience Center, a highly interdisciplinary research programme centered on the idea of brain networks in health and society. After receiving is M.D. from the University of Pavia in Italy, he carried out a residency in Neurology at the University of Verona. In 1990 he moved to US, carting out a fellowship in NeuroImaging at Barnes Hospital at Wash U in St. Louis. While in St. Louis, he worked his way up to being the Norman J. Strupp Professor of Neurology, and Professor of Radiology, Anatomy, Neurobiology Bioengineering and Neuroscience at Wash University, as well as Director of Stroke and Brain Injury Rehabilitation at the Rehabilitation Institute of St. Louis. He moved back to Italy, to teh University of Padua, in 2016. Prof. Corbetta has pioneered experiments on the neural mechanisms of human attention using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). He has discovered two brain networks dedicated to attention control, the dorsal and ventral attention networks, and developed a brain model of attention. His clinical work has focused on the physiological correlates of focal injury. He has developed a pathogenetic model of the syndrome of hemispatial neglect. He is currently developing novel methods for studying the functional organization of the brain using functional connectivity MRI, magneto-encephalography (MEG), and electro-corticography (EcoG). He is also working on the effects of focal injuries on the network organization of brain systems with an eye to neuromodulation. He is known for the high level of rigor and deep insight of his research, and has over 16 papers with over 1000 citations. Discussion In our conversation, we discuss some of the key people that influenced him, the incredible team of people at Washington University, as well as some of his early work. We also discuss his perspective on the utility and information in resting state fMRI. He’s senior author of one of the most provocative and compelling explanations for resting state activity that I’ve seen: titled The secret life of predictive brains: what’s spontaneous activity for? Pezzulo et al TICS 2021. We go on from there to discuss his perspective of the substantial importance and profound potential of systems level neuroimaging to not only basic neuroscience but also to clinical practice. Toward the end of our discussion, he highlights how diagnosis and treatment of stroke with neuromodulation can leverage current state of the art neuroimaging techniques.
December 01, 2021
S2 Ep11: Anastasia Yendiki, Diffusion based tract-tracing tool developer and validator
Guest: Anastasia Yendiki is a faculty member at the MGH Martinos center and a member of the Laboratory for Computational Neuroimaging (LCN). Her background is in statistical signal and image processing. She received her Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where she worked on inverse problems in tomographic reconstruction for nuclear imaging. As a postdoctoral research fellow at the Martinos Center, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, she trained in functional and diffusion-weighted MRI. She is responsible for the development of the diffusion MRI analysis tools in FreeSurfer, including TRACULA (TRActs Constrained by UnderLying Anatomy), a diffusion-weighed MRI analysis stream in Bruce Fischl’s FreeSurfer, for automatically reconstructing a set of major white matter pathways from diffusion MRI data using global probabilistic tractography with anatomical priors. She is also interested in ex vivo imaging of human brain circuits with diffusion MRI and optical imaging to both validate and train algorithms for in vivo tractography. Discussion In this wide-reaching discussion we delve into all aspects of her work developing diffusion-based tractography, including her work on better algorithms, current unknowns and challenges, her validation studies, clinical applications, and Connectome scanner at MGH. Towards the end we discuss the planned connectome II scanner and some of the most exciting challenges the field faces.
November 18, 2021
S2 Ep10: Denis LeBihan – Inventing diffusion MRI and DTI
Denis LeBihan, M.D., Ph.D., is a clinician and physicist, a relentless innovator in the field of MRI and fMRI since the late 80’s, and—as we hear in this podcast—a broad, deep, and highly creative thinker who remains passionate about his work. Denis is the founding director of NeuroSpin in Orsay, France and spends time in Japan as a guest professor at the University of Kyoto and National Institutes of Physical Sciences in Okazaki. Denis Le Bihan has achieved international recognition for his truly fundamental contributions to the development of diffusion MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and the concept of IVIM to image perfusion. It is the b in his name from which the ubiquitous b-factor in diffusion comes from. He has more recently demonstrated the ability to image brain activation-related diffusion coefficient changes. In this podcast, we discuss the intellectual history of Denis’ career. He produced the first diffusion-weighted images, helped establish diffusion tensor imaging, and advanced the concept of imaging perfusion as having an “apparent diffusion coefficient” (ADC) and order of magnitude higher than water diffusion. He has also demonstrated that water diffusion, when imaged with very high b-values, decreases with brain activation. Cell swelling increases the surface area of cells where low diffusion coefficient water resides, thus lowering overall diffusion coefficient. This last result is still debated but generally gaining acceptance with each new paper demonstrating the effect. He also spends some time in the episode talking about his foray into modeling brain function, tapping into inspiration from Einstein and relativity. Overall, it was a fun and inspiring conversation!
November 10, 2021
S2 Ep9: Gollub, Calamante and Mangun on conferences post COVID-19
In this episode Peter Bandettini speaks with the Chairs of three large neuroimaging societies: Randy Gollub from the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM), Fernando Calamante from the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) and Ron Mangun from the Cognitive Neuroscience Society. Together they consider how COVID-19 has impacted the annual meetings of these societies and some of the innovative strategies used to increase interactivity at online or hybrid meetings. For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit: www.ohbmbrainmappingblog.com
November 03, 2021
S2 Ep8: Xavier Castellanos, probing brain development with fMRI
Dr. Xavier Castellanos is a psychiatrist and a highly influential scientist who has been working in neuroimaging for over 20 years towards the goal of leveraging MRI, fMRI and other approaches to better understand and treat children and adults with psychiatric disorders. Xavier Castellanos studied Chomskian linguistics at Vassar College, experimental psychology at the University of New Orleans, and medicine at Louisiana State University in Shreveport - receiving his M.D. in 1986. He was in the first cohort of “triple board” residents (combined training in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child and adolescent psychiatry) at the University of Kentucky. In 1991, he conducted child psychiatry research at the National Institute of Mental Health under the supervision of Judy Rapaport. In 2001, he moved to New York University, where he is now an endowed Professor of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and Professor of Radiology and Neuroscience at the NYU Grossman School of Medicine. He has also been a research psychiatrist at the Nathan Kline Institute since 2006, with a focus on using intrinsic functional connectivity-based approaches in human and translational studies. He was an early advocate of using resting state fMRI and of the creation of consortium-driven databases. Dr. Castelanos is one of the most impactful clinical neuroscientists in brain mapping with an h-index of 124 and over 70K citations. He is a highly collaborative and an outstanding mentor, having won the inaugural OHBM Mentor Award last year. Discussion: Here Dr. Castellanos discusses fascinating career development from his early years to his formative decade at the NIH, and finally to his current position at NYU and Nathan Kline. He discusses his embrace of neuroimaging and fMRI towards studying psychiatric disorders and developmental trajectories and expresses a skepticism with the idea that fMRI will reveal clinically useful biomarkers. That said, he emphasizes that fMRI is deeply useful for understanding the organization of the brain in healthy subjects and those with psychiatric disorders.
October 27, 2021
S2 Ep7: Grassroots Open Science at Max Planck
In this episode Peter Bandettini meets with Drs Lieneke Janssen and Gisela Govaart to discuss grassroots open science projects. They consider how Lieneke & Gisela got started, what is unique about their group (that it is purely student/postdoc driven), what initiatives they are taking on, the need for open science, and how to incentivize people to embrace open science. For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit: www.ohbmbrainmappingblog.com
October 20, 2021
S2 Ep6: Jack Gallant, Deriving fundamentals of brain organization with fMRI
This is our second episode with Jack Gallant, PhD, a neuroscientist and engineer. Jack is currently a Chancellor’s Professor of Psychology and Class of 1940 Endowed Chair at UC Berkeley and is affiliated with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. The first podcast with him delved so deeply into his approach to assessing fMRI data and his philosophy of doing good science and good fMRI that Peter felt they didn’t get a chance to talk about Jack’s groundbreaking results and what questions they open up. In this episode, Peter and Jack discuss his fascinating and potentially paradigm shifting results on widely distributed, semantic maps in the brain that shift and warp depending on the task itself. Peter’s perspective is that these results open up new avenues for insight into fundamentals of brain organization. The brain is not just a conglomeration of distinct and static modules, but a shifting landscape of representation, much of which may be shaped primarily by our experience in the world. How we or our attention shifts these landscapes is an open and potentially profound question. Peter and Jack also discuss prospects for layer fMRI as well as the challenges of clinical MRI.
October 06, 2021
S2 Ep5: Jack Gallant, Strong opinions about fMRI analysis
MRI is ultimately about separating a known but variable signal from highly variable noise. How one does this makes all the difference. fMRI is particularly challenging since what is signal and what is noise is not always clear, as they both vary in time and space. In this episode, Peter talks to Jack Gallant, PhD, a neuroscientist and engineer. Jack is currently a Chancellor’s Professor of Psychology and Class of 1940 Endowed Chair at UC Berkeley and is affiliated with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. He is a huge proponent of fMRI encoding or, more generally, careful model building to probe the time series. He thinks that more model free approaches and paradigm free methods are ultimately limited. The discussion gets technical as well as intense at times; while Jack and Peter agreed most of the time, there were some nuanced differences of opinion - mostly when it came to discussing alternative methods for probing fMRI data. Overall, we think it was a fun and hopefully a useful discussion! What comes through is Jack’s passion for what he does. Given that they only barely got started with Peter’s questions, Peter invited him back for another chat - see S2 Episode 6!
October 06, 2021
S2 Ep4: The world according to AFNI
Peter talks to Bob Cox, Ph.D., Gang Chen, Ph.D. and Paul Taylor, Ph.D. about AFNI. AFNI is a major processing package used by brain mapping groups all over the world. It is nearly as old as fMRI itself, and has been steadily growing in functionality. Here we discuss the history of how it all started as well as a few of the challenges of fMRI processing that have arisen over the years. Importantly, time is spent discussing more of the philosophy of data analysis and visualization. A key tenet that AFNI has always encouraged is the ability to drill down and look directly at the data. This ability to flexibly and efficiently visualize the data at all processing steps not only guards against problematic data and hidden artifacts but is also a catalyst for new analysis ideas. We discuss a bit of the future of analysis and the bottleneck for clinical implementation. Guests: Bob Cox, Ph.D. is the creator of AFNI and still leads a team, the Scientific and Statistical Core, at the NIH which helps users and continues to develop AFNI. Bob received his Ph.D in Applied Mathematics from Caltech, and after several industry positions and a short stint at Indiana University and Purdue University, he moved to the Medical College of Wisconsin where he began to create AFNI. He moved to the NIH in 2001 where his work accelerated as he was allowed to grow a team of programmers to further advance AFNI. Gang Chen, Ph.D. joined the AFNI team at the NIH in 2003. He is a staff scientist and the chief statistician for things fMRI and related. He received his PhD. from the University of Arizona, Tucson and has been recently pushing our understanding of variability in large N datasets. Paul Taylor, Ph.D. joined the AFNI team in 2015. He received his D. Phil in Astrophysics from Oxford University, and performed post docs at the University of Cape Town and with Bharat Biswal in New Jersey. He has been leading the effort to incorporate diffusion imaging and tractography into AFNI For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit: ohbmbrainmappingblog.com Keywords: #brain #imaging #software #data #fMRI #research #clinical
September 29, 2021
S2 Ep3: Nikola Stikov, Physicist, Engineer, Open Scientist & Communicator
Peter talks to Dr. Nikola Stikov, a professor of Biomedical Engineering, a researcher at the Montreal Heart Institute, and co-director of NeuroPoly, the Neuroimaging Research Laboratory at Polytechnique Montreal. Nikola is a physicist, engineer and a strong proponent of quantitative and reproducible MRI for further clinical traction and impact. This involves promoting open science, creating shared analysis toolboxes, and fostering data and code sharing across researchers and vendors. As mature as MRI is, we are still just scratching the surface of what information it can provide. Nikola is a gifted and passionate communicator; this conversation touches on his research in using MRI to derive information about cell structure in the brain and the potential uses in understanding brain connectivity as well as pathology. Also discussed is Nikola’s many initiatives regarding open science, dissemination of results, publishing - and how outdated the pdf is, and science outreach. For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit: ohbmbrainmappingblog.com
September 20, 2021
S2 Ep2: Melanie Boly, Defining and Finding Consciousness
This week, Peter talks to Dr. Melanie Boly, a neurologist and neuroscientist who has worked for more than fifteen years in the field of altered states of consciousness such as vegetative state, sleep and anesthesia. In this wide ranging discussion, Peter and Melanie address everything related to her work on consciousness. They start with some of her early work on resting state as a modulator for detecting subtle stimuli and then get into a discussion on a working definition of consciousness and her work on understanding the neural correlates of consciousness. Melanie is a proponent of the idea that many, if not all, of the fundamental physical correlates of consciousness reside in the posterior part of the brain. Peter and Melanie also discuss Integrated Information Theory (IIT): how it helps us begin to understand consciousness. Last they consider her studies of sleep and how dreaming is not limited to REM sleep. This interesting discussion straddles theoretical work and practical clinical applications of brain imaging. For more info on the Neurosalience podcast and the guests, visit: https://www.ohbmbrainmappingblog.com/
September 15, 2021
S2 Ep1: A reflection about the podcast with Rachael Stickland
Welcome back to Neurosalience! In this episode Peter Bandettini talks to production lead, Dr Rachael Stickland. They discuss the best bits and themes from season 1 and what to expect from season 2.
September 15, 2021
Ultra-high resolution fMRI: Challenges, Limits, and Opportunities
This episode focuses on layer activity fMRI, an important and rapidly emerging area of neuroimaging research. Layer fMRI opens up the possibility of mapping directional communication channels between active brain regions. Peter discusses the challenges, limits and opportunities of ultra-high resolution fMRI with four leaders in this research field - Rainer Goebel, David Feinberg, Jon Polimeni & Renzo Huber.
August 13, 2021
Going beyond cartography in brain imaging with David Poeppel
In this podcast, Peter talks to Dr. David Poeppel, a Professor of Psychology and Neural Science at New York University (NYU). Peter and David discuss how MRI and other imaging modalities may play a part in truly understanding the brain as well as what it even means to understand the brain. They discuss David’s past work with Greg Hickok on language pathways, and his work in the auditory cortex. Another topic discussed is the potential impact of David’s work clinically as well as the need to start with, and progressively add to, models of the brain.
August 06, 2021
Dynamic modeling of the brain, NeuroImage, and the neuroscience crisis in Australia with Michael Breakspear
Michael Breakspear, Ph.D. is a physicist and psychiatrist and the leader of the Systems Neuroscience and Translational Neuroimaging Group at the Hunter Medical Research Institute at the University of Newcastle in Australia. In this wide ranging discussion, Peter talks to Michael about his motivations for dynamic modeling of the brain and how his research may pay off in the long run towards clinical applications. Michael is also the Editor in Chief of the journal NeuroImage; there is discussion of some of the changes that have occurred, such as new types of papers, new policies on data sharing, and of course the transition to open access. Michael mentions a new offshoot of NeuroImage called NeuroImage reports, which welcome re-analysis of previous results. Lastly, recent news of the Australian National University shutting down its Neuroscience program because of budget problems is discussed.
July 30, 2021
Understanding the reproducibility crisis and how to get through it, with Dr. Ahmad Hariri
Dr. Ahmad Hariri is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience at Duke University, where he is also the Director of the Laboratory of NeuroGenetics. Dr. Hariri recently published an important paper on the test-retest reliability of common task-fMRI measures. This received attention in the field and from the popular media and generated useful discussions. In this podcast Peter and Ahmad discuss the implications of this paper and how to address the challenges it presents and continue to move the field forward. This is an informative and positive discussion about how to collectively address these issues as a field.
July 23, 2021
A critical look at the field of fMRI - A conversation with Dimitri Kullmann and Vince Calhoun
This podcast idea was precipitated by Dimitri Kullman’s 2020 editorial in Brain, causing a stir in the community. It levelled criticism about the clinical validity of fMRI. Some of it was outdated but some was indeed on point. In this podcast we had a great discussion on all things fMRI - what it can and cannot measure, and how it can continue to proceed. We also discuss some of the scientific culture surrounding fMRI. Overall, the discussion was useful in bringing some of the flaws as well as some of the outstanding innovations to light. We ended up agreeing that fMRI is in fact, an extremely useful tool that allows penetrating insight into the brain at a specific temporal and spatial scale. We feel that there is still considerable hope yet also considerable challenge in increasing its clinical relevance. Guests: Dr. Dimitri Kullmann is a professor of Neurology at UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology. Dr. Vince Calhoun is the director, since 2019, of Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science (TReNDS), which includes three universities: Georgia State, Georgia Tech, and Emory.
July 09, 2021
The 2021 OHBM Early Career Investigator Award winner: Chao-Gan Yan
Here Professor Peter Bandettini has a wide ranging discussion with the 2021 Early Career Investigator Awardee, Chao-Gan Yan. They talk a bit about his career path, the highly impactful work he has been doing, as well as some of the most challenging issues in fMRI: dealing with motion, variability, finding biomarkers, and designing just the right packages that help the beginner and expert alike. Chao-Gan gives some great advice to new investigators regarding what was important to him to get him where he is today.
July 02, 2021
OHBM Open Science Special Interest Group
In this week's episode, Peter discusses the history of the Open Science Special Interest Group and the unique and important role this group plays in OHBM, alongside Janine Bijsterbosh, Johanna Bayer, Katie Bottenhorn, Melvin Selim Atay and Aki Nikolaidis. The OHBM Open Science Special Interest Group fosters open science not only by encouraging best practices and sharing data and code, but by encouraging inclusivity in science and open ended discussion in a supportive environment.
June 18, 2021
A Conversation with OHBM 2021 Keynote Speaker Nikolaus Weiskopf
Join host Peter Bandettini as he talks with Dr. Nikolaus Weiskopf, Director of the Department of Neurophysics at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.
June 11, 2021
Alex Fornito: A Connectomic Perspective of the Brain.
In this episode of NeuroSalience, Peter chats with Alex about connectomics, or the study of the brain’s networks of connections. We discuss Alex’s work leveraging the Allen Brain Atlas (https://portal.brain-map.org/) and fMRI to better understand the genetic basis of the network structure. He points out clear differences between network hubs and other network components, with hubs having important roles in resting state dynamics and in neurological disorders. We also discuss the ongoing challenge of removing physiological noise from the fMRI signal in the context of his new and powerful methods for dissecting it out. Last, we touch on the new iteration of the OHBM virtual platform that Alex was instrumental in developing.
June 02, 2021
Functional MRI Data Sharing, Best Practices and Reproducibility
In this episode, Peter Bandettini meets with Tom Nichols, Remi Gau and Jack Van Horn to discuss the motivation for a set of best reporting and analysis practices. This provides insight into how the COBIDAS (Committee on Best Practice in Data Analysis and Sharing) in OHBM was started. They talk about the reproducibility crisis in fMRI and how it is being addressed. They discuss how the culture of fMRI has changed from isolated scientists doing N=20 studies to a connected web of researchers collecting and contributing to fMRI databases of high quality data for the purpose of revealing ever more subtle information. Through this work, the field aims to achieve robust biomarkers that are clinically useful in diagnosing and treating diseases. They also discuss many of the issues and decisions made in analysis, and how this may contribute to irreproducible results. Last, they consider the ongoing and future global efforts to increase data transparency to make fMRI a more effective tool.
May 28, 2021
We all need mentors: The OHBM Student-Postdoc Student Interest Group
In this episode Peter Bandettini meets Carolina Makowski, Michele Veldsman and Alex Fornito to discuss the OHBM Student–Postdoc special interest group (SIG), with particular emphasis on their mentoring scheme and meeting-related workshops. Carolina is a current member of the SIG and Michele previously served as its Chair, Alex has been an active mentor to several junior OHBM members over the years through this group. They discuss the mentorship program, the workshops at the meeting, what good mentorship is, and why it’s needed more than ever, as the stresses and demands of students and postdocs increases within an ever more demanding professional climate.
May 19, 2021
Art and the Brain: The OHBM Brain Art Student Interest Group
In this conversation, Peter Bandettini meets members of the BrainArt SIG to discuss its history from the NeuroBureau to its current formal SIG status. They discuss what brain art (or more generally science art) is, consider what the best features of brain art are and how, essentially, any scientist trying to convey the essence of their findings can be considered an artist. You’ll discover the planned competitions and directions of the BrainArt SIG. The discussion also considers why diversity in this SIG, the field of Brain Mapping, and science in general is so important.
May 07, 2021
The Organization (Society) for Human Brain Mapping today. Some history, challenges and virtuality
In this podcast we discuss a bit of this history and evolution of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM). We also talk about some of the challenges that it has faced in recent years, with world events causing a last minute change in venue three times. We talk about the improvements in this year’s virtual meeting as well as the growth in the engagement of younger members of OHBM with all the chapters and Special Interest Groups.
April 30, 2021
The Opportunities and Challenges of Physiologic fMRI , with Jean Chen & Molly Bright
This week’s podcast is centered on physiologic fMRI. Generally, when people think of fMRI, they think of a way to map neuronal function, however there is so much information about neurovascular physiology in the signal. Many researchers who use fMRI may not realize all of the potentially untapped information—and confounds!—in the fMRI time series. Dr Jean Chen and Dr Molly Bright each run research groups that focus on this information in complementary ways. Both use physiologic manipulations and an array of acquisition methods to probe and characterize details of the hemodynamic response, though their two research programs focus on different aspects of the haemodynamic response function. In this podcast, they highlight the importance of physiologic fMRI for the field. They also consider the challenges facing women in male-dominated research fields and how the life of women scientists might be improved.
April 16, 2021
Identifying and Modulating pathological networks, with Michael Fox
In this week’s podcast, you’ll hear about clinical applications of resting-state fMRI from Dr Michael Fox. You’ll hear some of the highlights of his research, from the beginnings at Wash U, including his early work on resting-state fMRI and the issue of global signal regression, to his more recent pioneering work on lesion network mapping. Through this, you’ll find out about how lesions can impact behaviour through their effects on functional networks. This approach is a promising inroad of fMRI towards clinical utility.
April 01, 2021
Pulling more from the resting state time series, focusing on vigilance, with Catie Chang
Peter Bandetti talks to Catie Chang, who walks us through her thought process regarding pulling information out of the fMRI time series. After discussing some of the ongoing issues in fMRI, such as whether or not to use global signal regression to remove noise, she leads us into a commonly overlooked effect in fMRI—that of changes in arousal and vigilance. In particular, this has measurable effects on the resting state fMRI signal. She discusses the perspective that one person’s artifact may be another’s useful signal, depending on the goal of the study.
March 26, 2021
The unique relationship between scanner vendors and the field of fMRI
In this week's episode, Peter Bandettini talks to directly to MRI scanner vendors. Together, they try to reconcile the importance of fMRI in research contexts with the market pressures of developing clinical applications. As fMRI has virtually no clinical market, does it really influence vendor decisions on pulse sequences and hardware? Could more be done aside from making fMRI more clinically relevant? In this discussion, you’ll hear some fascinating history into the early days of echo planar imaging and high speed imaging, as well as insight into the processes by which products are prioritised. You’ll also find out a possible future of how fMRI may begin to become more clinically useful.
March 19, 2021
Modeling Brain Networks and Bias in Science, with Danielle Bassett
For our third episode, we bring you a birds-eye view of modeling messy biologic systems, namely the brain. Peter Bandettini talks to Danielle Bassett about the challenges of measurement accuracy and what scale might be most informative for modeling, including how to make do with what we have. From the clinical perspective, they talk about network control theory for modulating networks for therapy and discuss limitations in technology. They also talk about the limits of network modeling and the search for the equivalent of an idea as powerful as “natural selection” for the brain. In the second part of the podcast they discuss bias in science and what Danielle is doing to help increase transparency to combat this bias.
March 12, 2021
Aperture, a new open access publishing platform for neuroimaging research
Peter Bandettini introduces Aperture, a new open access publishing platform for neuroimaging research that he co-founded with Jean-Baptiste Poline. Joining them both are the new Aperture Editor In Chief, Tonya White and the journal manager, Kay Vanda. Together, they discuss the motive, history, steps for creation, and current status of Aperture. It was created with the strong support of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, and aims to be a peer-reviewed platform for publishing papers, but also various other types of research objects that do often not find space in conventional journals, including data, educational tutorials and code. While there is still work to be done to be fully up and running, many insights into this process are shared and discussed.
March 05, 2021
OHBM Neurosalience: An introduction to the podcast
Peter Bandettini chats with Rachael Stickland, where they set out some of the exciting conversations you’ll hear on OHBM Neurosalience. The name ‘Neurosalience’ highlights the aim of this podcast - to put a spotlight on important developments, discoveries and controversies in the world of human brain mapping. Find out why this podcast was set up, what the main themes and topics will be, and what to look forward to with the first few episodes.
March 03, 2021