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Philosophy Exchange Podcast

Philosophy Exchange Podcast

By Philosophy Exchange
Welcome to the Philosophy Exchange Podcast! In our general podcast you will hear our members talk about philosophical ideas and our experiences in academia, with new episodes published monthly. Additionally, we have two new podcast series, our PX interviews, where we interview people who have influenced our work, and a special series, PX on AI dedicated to Artificial Intelligence. We hope you enjoy listening to the podcast and make sure to check us out on Twitter @PhilXchange and on our website philosophyexchange.org to get to know more about the community!
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PX on AI - Values in Artificial Intelligence

Philosophy Exchange Podcast

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PX on AI - Oxford's John Zerilli on Explainable AI
In this episode Karl and Johanna interview John Zerilli, a Leverhulme Fellow at the University of Oxford. Together, they discuss what explainable AI is and how different types of AI can be more or less transparent. Further, they discuss how machine learning models might be used for measurement just as they are used for prediction and explanation
26:37
December 16, 2021
PX - Buddhist Philosophy
In this episode you'll hear Johanna interview Graham Doke on Buddhist Philosophy. Graham is a PhD student at the University of Edinburgh who follows Mahayana Buddhism. In this episode you'll learn about the basics of Buddhist philosophy, their different schools, how it compares to western analytical philosophy, as well as Graham's experience as a philosopher of both traditions. For those interested in Buddhist philosophy, here a link to the website of Grahams' teacher and author of the book mentioned in the episode: https://geshetashi.org
27:54
November 10, 2021
PX and PhD Research - Nicholas Makins: "Attitudinal Ambivalence: Moral Uncertainty for Non-Cognitivists"
We interview Nicholas Makins on his recent publication "Attitudinal Ambivalence: Moral Uncertainty for Non-Cognitivists". In this paper, Makins adopts a non-cognivist account of moral judgements, characterized not as beliefs but as cognitive attitudes, like desires or forms of will. The aim of the article is to show that this view can be better defended if one defines moral doubt not in terms of credential uncertainty (viz., lack of information) but as ambivalence – i.e., a situation where two conflicting desires clash with each other. The fascinating proposal is illustrated via some examples through the podcast conversation, which opens insightful reflection about the nature of moral attitudes and the strategy one should adopt in cases of moral doubt. You can read the paper here https://doi.org/10.1080/00048402.2021.1908380 
23:06
August 25, 2021
PX on AI - Edinburgh’s Shannon Vallor on AI and Society
In this episode Karl and Roze are joined by Philosophy Exchange member Johanna Sarisoy to interview Shannon Vallor, Professor at the Edinburgh Futures Institute (EFI). Together, they discuss the future of artificial intelligence (AI) from a variety of perspectives such as what it means to develop moral AI. Further, they discuss how experts can dialogue within academia and to the broader public.
29:35
July 14, 2021
PX and PhD Research - Cecily Whitely: "Aphantasia, imagination and dreaming"
In this episode, we interview Cecily Whitely, a PhD student at the LSE who recently published an article with the title "Aphantasia, imagination and dreaming" (2021). In her article, she test a recent philosophical theory of dreaming as a type of imagination by looking at the empirical research on aphantasic patients, i.e. people who are not able to voluntarily create mental images. Through this appeal to medical enquiry, Whitely shows the inadequacy of the standard philosophical view of dreaming as a form of imagination and proposes her own amended account of dream. The discussion with the author raises interesting questions about dreaming and imagination, but also regarding the interplay of science and philosophy and the role of philosophers of science in the progress of both the disciplines. The paper can be found here - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11098-020-01526-8 
17:33
June 30, 2021
PX Interviews - Jonathan Birch
In this second episode of PX Interview, we chat with Dr. Jonathan Birch, Associate Professor at LSE, specializing in the philosophy of the biological sciences. We asked him about his research on animal welfare, how understanding of animal sentience could transform how we live our everyday life, and what are some top moments of his academic career.
30:40
June 09, 2021
PX - How We Value Nature: Perspectives from Philosophy and Economics
If we put a price on nature is everything up for sale? And if we don’t, is everything up for grabs? We first discuss valuing nature from a philosophical perspective before moving to the question of putting a monetary value on nature. Amongst others, we talk about the Dasgupta review which proposes to include biodiversity in our economic accounting and argue about the pros and cons of doing so.
33:46
May 26, 2021
PX on AI - Cooperative AI with Ed Hughes of Google's DeepMind
In this episode Karl and Roze interview Ed Hughes from Google’s DeepMind. They chat about a recent paper* co-written by Ed on Cooperative AI and investigate the following questions: What is cooperative AI and why is it of importance? Further, what are the so-called capabilities of cooperative AI? Finally, should humanity be afraid of this new approach, or will it beneficial for society? *For those interested, the paper can be found here: https://arxiv.org/abs/2012.08630
37:38
May 12, 2021
PX on AI - Virtue Theory
In this third episode of the series on Artificial Intelligence (AI) at the Philosophy Exchange, Roze and Karl continue the conversation on values with Demetra Brady who was previously featured in the second episode. They chat on i) why some are concerned about AI systems, ii) what the current approach to AI ethics is from a theoretical and practical viewpoint, and iii) how virtue theory might contribute to AI ethics.
33:24
April 28, 2021
PX and PhD Research - Walter Veit: "Model Diversity and the Embarrassment of the Riches"
In this new series, we interview PhD students and young academics about a recently published papers. In today's episode Jakob interviews University of Sydney's Walter Veit on his paper "Model Diversity and the Embarrassment of the Riches". Using the discussion on model pluralism in economics which followed Dani Rodrik‘s "Economics Rules", he argues that model pluralism as a thesis about the relationship between science and nature undermines the very idea of a general model selection framework for policy making. The paper can be found under: https://doi.org/10.1080/1350178X.2021.1898660
16:36
April 14, 2021
PX - Inference to the Best Explanation
In this episode we discuss inference to the best explanation (IBE), its difference from induction and deduction, as well as its several applications in science and philosophy. The talk then naturally moves to reflections upon what an explanation is, and what are the values that come into play when one assesses the explanatory strength of scientific hypotheses.
34:52
March 31, 2021
PX - What Philosophy can teach Economics and what Economics can teach Philosophy
What can philosophy and economics learn from each other? Despite close historical connections, the two disciplines have now largely diverged. Our conversation focuses on how insights from moral philosophy can enhance welfare economics, how philosophy of science can make experimental economics more robust, and why following economics’ lead in formalizing arguments with mathematics might be a good idea for philosophy.
27:30
March 17, 2021
PX on AI - Values in Artificial Intelligence
In this second episode of the series on Artificial Intelligence (AI) at the PhilExchange, Karl and Roze interview Dr. Rune Nyrup and current Master Student Demetra Brady who are both affiliated at the Leverhulme's Centre for the Future of Intelligence at the University of Cambridge. They chat about the Centre itself, the value-ladenness of AI and the importance of informed consent in supposedly opaque and complex AI systems.
32:37
March 03, 2021
PX Interviews - Liam Kofi Bright
In this inaugural episode of the Philosophy Exchange Interview series two PXchange members chat with Liam Kofi Bright, an assistant professor from the London School of Economics, about his life and work in academia. They chat about his current work, tips for aspiring and current PhD students and Liam's personal experience in academia. Listen to the end for the rapid fire questions!
35:40
February 17, 2021
PX - Philosophy in Fiction
What are your favorite philosophical books, movies or tv-shows? In today's episode we chat about the Matrix, Ayn Rand's Anthem, the Harry Potter series, and other popular pieces of fiction portraying philosophical ideas such as reality, political ideologies, and time travel.
25:09
February 03, 2021
PX on AI - The Philosophical Backdrop of Artificial Intelligence
Roze and Karl from Philosophy Exchange introduce, in this episode, our new series on Artificial Intelligence (AI). To explore AI, they begin by considering ‘weak’ versus ‘strong’ intelligence as well as ‘general’ versus ‘narrow’ intelligence. Karl then transitions to explain the famous ‘Turing Test’ by which an artificial intelligence system is tested for general intelligence. Roze concludes by considering the ‘Chinese Room’ thought experiment, which is itself a reply to the Turing Test.
34:53
January 25, 2021
PX - Analogies and Analogical Reasoning
What is the nature of analogy and the role of analogical reasoning in philosophy and science? What makes an analogy reliable or justified? Why do philosophers and scientists employ analogical reasoning in their investigations? After introducing general intuitions on the concept of analogy, Johanna, Jorge and Lorenzo try to provide an answer to these questions by presenting several examples of analogies and analyzing their epistemic features.
29:56
January 06, 2021
PX - 'Tis the Season...For Writing Essays
For those interested in writing philosophy, three members, all having experience grading papers at the university level, take on the topic of writing philosophical essays. They begin with suggestions on how to identify paper questions/topics before going further into how to structure and craft an essay, ultimately providing their unique tips and general advice for you as you write your essays. Happy Holidays everyone!
31:48
December 24, 2020
PX - Thoughts on Thought Experiments
Enter the conceptual world of Thought Experiments in Philosophy! Each individual on this podcast brought with them a unique thought experiment for the roundtable, with topics ranging from thoughts on gambling to Peter Singer's famous drowning child thought experiment. Our roundtable concludes by discussing the philosophical account necessary for thought experiments to be useful for an academic or epistemic purpose. 
33:44
November 27, 2020