R. Yochanan's opinion that one doesn't need to make a new bracha over food in a new locale. That is, no after-blessing nor prior to eating, even for the foods that do not need an after-blessing. But that's disputed, of course. And somewhat counter-intuitive, prioritizing the nature of the food or the meal over the logistics of location. Also, Birkat HaMazon over a cup of wine, and whether that can be combined over a cup that would have kiddush recited on it as well - which would be via a complicated scenario, wherein kiddush would take place after the meal...! Plus, why we don't bundle out mitzvot together. Except for when we do.
Kiddush! Why we make kiddush at home, after hearing it in shul, and why we make kiddush in shul, despite the fact that we're going to make kiddush at home too. Plus the requirement to have a meal in the place where you make kiddush, for kiddush to count. Also, how halakhah is quoted from an amoraic perspective, and how they put it into practice.
In not wrecking your appetite before the fist yom tov meal, if you do start a meal on Erev Shabbat or Erev Yom Tov, how would it work? Do you interrupt the meal you're in to daven and make kiddush? There's a difference of opinion, of course. Would you interrupt for Havdalah, even according to those who say that you should for Kiddush? You can hide the table for Havdalah.
A neat solution for the lost Korban Pesach. Plus: the value of a science, for both the fool and the wise, including context! Also: Chapter 10! Coming to the matzah with an appetite. And the four cups, which demonstrates the freedom of Seder night (as well as the expense and how to handle it). That is, the class equalizer, at least in concept, of the seder. Plus, the Gemara's question about why Erev Pesach proffers a concern about appetite, and now every other holiday and Shabbat.
3 interesting mishnayot: 1. Designating an animal that never should have been consecrated for a Korban Pesach - what can be done with the animal? What if something gets in the way of the offering between the time of consecration and the time of offering? What if one becomes an onen - an immediate mourner? 5 Amoraim then address what the case is, of when one became an onen. 2. Animals that are mixed up, between which was for which korban. Now what?! Some measure of penalty seems in place, presumably for the fact that this was allowed to happen. 3. After a Korban Pesach has been designated, it gets lost, and all the parameters of one person going off to find it, while everyone else has designated another animal in the meantime, and all the possibilities thereof. Plus the cases of multiple confusions.
On Shmuel's discussion of a Korban Chatat, and the 5 cases when an animal that was designated for the korban can't be used, and it's put to death instead of living out its days grazing, until it gets a blemish anyway. Plus the policy of sending most out to graze, if disqualified. And the parallel application of these same cases to the Korban Pesach (they become korbanot shelamim), but still, most go to graze. With caveats on Shmuel's position. Plus, which factor wins out when there's a replacement korban?
The differences between the Korban Pesach brought as part of the Exodus from Egypt and the Korban Pesach that was offered every year.... Contrasting the in-person experience, as compared to the memorialization of the experience. Also, not substituting one animal for an already designated, consecrated animal, but what if have already done so?
More on Pesach Sheni - this time, how it differs from Pesach Rishon. And how they're the same, too. Plus, how the requirement of Hallel adds a new dimension to our theoretical experience of the Korban Pesach. Also, what happens when the Korban Pesach is brought when most of the community is impure, which means a lot of people who cannot enter the Temple... with different categories of Impurity, and the implications of that.
A journey into the heavens: the astronomy of the Talmud and that of today, post-Copernicus. Including a dispute between the Jewish sages and the non-Jewish sages if their day. Also, an interesting take on Nebuchadnezzar and a bat kol. And the distances of the earth to the firmament. Plus: 4 seasonal paths that the sun takes across the sky.
When is one obligated to bring a Korban Pesach on Pesach Sheni? Whether you'd get karet or not for missing Pesach Rishon... When does karet kick in? What about those whose obligation for the Korban Pesach kicks in between Pesach Rishon and Pesach Sheni? Can you be obligated in the second one that year at all?! Three opinions on Pesach Sheni, and the rationales for each of them. Also, how far is a "distant journey"? Plus: the dots on the tops of letters in the Torah.
More on the mourner in the immediacy of mourning, as another distinction between the Korban Pesach and other kodshim. In contrast to one who hears of a close relative's death more than 30 days after the death. Also, the case of a convert who converts on Erev Pesach, and the dispute between Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai. As part of the consideration of the many different populations and the application of who they are with regard to the Korban Pesach. Plus: 6 scenarios of rabbinic decrees and their own limitations. Now, the next chapter: On Pesach Sheni. And another dispute, this time between R. Nachman and R. Sheshet, hinging on their different takes on the exact same case and prooftext.
The case of one in immediate mourning (onen) and others who becomes unable to eat from the Korban Pesach, but are eligible at the time of schitah, they are included, as long as that group for the korban isn't only those ambiguous categories of status. Also, more on women and the Korban Pesach. For all that most include women, R. Shimon apparently does not.
The money for a Korban Pesach and a prostitute's (zonah) earnings/fees - can these be one and the same, or rather, how to relate to these cases. Why is this here now, what are the implications? Also, what can you do with the Korban Pesach funds? More, what is this economy? How far can the Korban Pesach funds go? Trading has a place, within reason.
What if the Korban Pesachs were jumbled, and one of them was rendered problematic. Now what? A "residual korban" might be a good solution, though how that would work is also a good question. Also, the laying on of hands for the korban, a distinction between the Korban Pesach and a korban shelamim (for men, anyway). Also, when a father apportions the Korban Pesach to "the child who gets to Jerusalem first" - whether that's "bereirah" (retroactive clarification) or a father's pedagogical tool. Also, registration for a Korban Pesach stays open as long as there's a k'zayit for each person. Also, one who registers for a Korban Pesach, and registers a buddy too, without the rest of the group's approval. Plus, one who takes more generous portions for himself... the halakhic implications to the very human complications of sharing a meal.
The dates in Babylonia - a matter of perspective on how they influenced the Jews' study of Torah there. Also, more on the discussion of who can bring a Korban Pesach on behalf of someone else, in particular the woman who is a wife and daughter. Here, on children and slaves, as well. Also, more on the case of one who is half a slave and half a freed man. Beit Hillel and Beit Shammai on this person's marriage prospects. Plus, "tikkun olam" in the Talmud. Also, a king and queen who regularly turn to Rabban Gamliel the Elder, with some telling questions.
When a married woman eats from her husband's Korban Pesach, and when from her father's Korban Pesach. Likewise, how an orphan eats from a guardian's Korban Pesach, and a jointly-owned slave, or a partially-freed slave. [Who's Who/What's What: Hoshea and Trei Asar] Recounting Hoshea's narrative, and his repentance, and God's rebuke to him... and the promise of redemption. Also, the experience of the Babylonian Exile, and the comparison to Rome (with another exile to Babylonia!). Including the value of dispersal. Plus, why Babylonia was better for Bnei Yisrael, as a place of exile. And how the language brings us back to Hoshea and the mishnah.
We're the rooftops in Jerusalem, or even the Beit HaMikdash, considered holy? With implications for where one can eat the Korban Pesach. The discussion raises the question of how the Beit HaMikdash is a building. Also, a new mishnah on the actual group meal of the Korban Pesach, when two different groups are crowded in one room, where they'd face away from each other. A waiter traveled between the groups, being part of only one, so he too would turn his face away. So too a bride would turn her face away in shyness. Plus: R. Huna's etiquette, when offered honor as a distinguished guest. Here too, he's expected to turn his head. And he explains his breaches of etiquette as the appropriate conduct. Likewise, R. Yishmael, who related to the portions and expectations differently from R. Huna.
A new factor in the permissibility of th Korban Pesach: What happens if the meat is taken out of the boundaries where it's supposed to be? Is that rendered impure by rabbinic decree? Plus, what does moving it out entail? How much is parallel to the laws of carrying on Shabbat? Also, what happens if a limb leaves the boundary... where you then can't break the bone? As compared to other korbanot, where you could break the bones. And in having the boundary - outside the door jamb, possibly. Plus, a description of the courtyard vs. gates of Jerusalem, which hones which boundary. But wouldn't the gateways of Jerusalem be pure themselves?! Those with tzaraat would make their way to the Temple courtyard via Nikanor's Gate, to become pure.
Even those parts of a young ox that are edible because of its immaturity, which are not edible in an adult ox, are not permitted. The question is whether you can or cannot register to eat one of those parts of the Korban Pesach. That's a dispute of R. Yochanan and Resh Lakish -- which is revisited by the subsequent Amoraim, and Ravin and R. Abahu finish off the machloket (in favor of Resh Lakish). Also, if you break a bone of the Korban Pesach while it's still pure, that gets lashes, but not if the korban is notar and impure. Why are these cases different, though? 8 different explanations, with each flowing from the previous.
What do you do with the bones of the Korban Pesach? The mishnah says to burn them on the day after the day of eating the Korban Pesach, with any "notar" (leftover) - the question is why they are being burned, when only that which is edible is supposed to be burned. Also, that burning is shifted to the 17th of Nisan if the 16th is Shabbat (in which Anne and Yardaena think this deferral is sensible or puzzling, respectively). What about other korbanot that are burned on Shabbat? The biblical verses limit what's done when, including proofs from other arenas (like brit milah).
If the Korban Pesach is rendered impure, on part of all, how is it than burned? And how different personalities or economic standings have impact on who brings the wood to burn it. Plus, what in human nature we protect and protect against, and the potential to misappropriate public funds, even though we're talking about the holy Beit HaMikdash. Also, if the Korban Pesach or a portion thereof was taken out of Jerusalem - that too has to be burned. [What's What: Kodshim Kodashim/Kodshim Kalim] Plus, learning korban practice from the biblical offerings on the day of establishing the Mishkan, when Nadav and Avihu died and Aharon doesn't eat from the sin-offering that he brought that day (and the ensuing complicated rebuke and defense between Moshe and Aharon). And the implications of notar (leftover korban) and pigul (wrong intent). Note that the daf does not tell the story of Nadav and Avihu, but without knowing it, understanding Aharon's behavior is that much more puzzling.
More on Tumat ha-Tehom. First, the Gemara establishes a kal va-chomer (a fortiori) regarding the unknown impurity as derived from known purity. And then the Gemara knocks down that logic as illegitimate reasoning in this case. Rather, the particulars of Tumat ha-Tehom emerge from a whole slew of biblical verses, right? In fact, not quite, as the Gemara recasts those verses as "asmachta be-alma," a way to connect the halakhah to the text, but really the case of Tumat ha-Tehom is "halakhah le-Moshe mi-Sinai." Also, how all this comes to pass in practice - for example, how one might inadvertently, unknowingly come in contact with a dead body. And that body must be complete, in contrast to the usual tiny measure for Tumat Meit.
What happens if different elements of Bnei Yisrael are impure, and in different kinds of impurity? Those divisions might even be as per the biblical tribes... Would that push the whole tribe to Pesach Sheni? That's difficult, given the unifying role of the Korban Pesach. Also, the case of the korban itself being discovered to have been impure - the meat or the blood, not the person sacrificing - the tzitz of the kohen gadol will ease the way of that offering. It doesn't work for the person making the offering. Plus: Tumat ha-tehom - if one inadvertently comes in contact with the impurity of a dead body, without knowing it until afterwards, when it's too late to avoid... the situation is especially fraught for a nazir, who has essentially taken an oath to not come in contact with a dead body. For this case too, the tzitz will appease for the inadvertent impurity.
What happens if/when most or all of the population is impure? What happens if/when a minority of the community is impure? (Think Pesach Sheni). What if the people are pure, but the kohanim impure, or vice versa, or the vessels are impure? The offering stands. What is the knife is impure? With tumah that will render the person who wields it impure? Or tumah that will only render that which it cuts impure? Also: What if the population is exactly 50% pure and 50% impure? Are the both the majority? Or neither? (2 versions) And how do the cases line up with the sages' views? Plus, what about the women and their status of purity or impurity? How did their status contribute to the sum total of the people as a whole?
Does the mishnah line up with R. Yosi? What is the role of the tzitiz? Also, what is part of your korban becomes impure? Specifically, the meat that you would eat are impure, and the parts that would be burned on the altar are fine - no sprinkling of blood, because the eating is the most important part for the Korban Pesach. The reverse would require sprinkling. But the Korban Pesach itself doesn't have to be eaten, as long as that sprinkling takes place. Which lines up with Rabbi Natan's opinion. Also on tap, an attempt to understand the sprinkling of the blood.
5 different offerings from the mishnah on daf 76 that can be offered by those who are impure, though it's not eaten by those who are impure. As compared to other sacrifices, which cannot be eaten or offered in impurity. And as compared to the Korban Pesach. Plus, why identify this list as specifically "5"? What is excluded and why? Also, is the principle that allows for the korban one of "d'chuya" (pushing off) or "hutra" (actually permitted)? And what does the "tzitz" - from the garments of the kohen gadol that permits it, perhaps in the metaphysics of the mitzvot here. Also, the dispute between R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua, to what extent does the tzitz affect the acceptance of the korban?
What happens if the Korban Pesach comes in contact with something that might cook any amount of the sacrifice through direct contact? The question brings us to a discussion of basic kashrut principles, and how foods absorb (or don't) the taste(s) of other foods. Specifically, the role of temperature, and the placement of the respective foods. Similarly, the braita that presents the basics of temperature and absorption, with a solution (when rinsing off the foods in contact is sufficient). What about salted foods? What about pickled foods? What about the quintessentially dairy kutach? R. Chinena bar Rava of Pashronya is learned enough to be able to be lenient in the case of kutach. Plus: The mixing of flavors during cooking, even from 2 different Korban Pesach offerings. Bonus: A pig was cooked in the house of the resh galuta.
The need for fire in roasting, and the Gemara's reread of the mishnah with an emended text (chisurei mechsera) that turns the mishnah's discussion of a grill on its head, and Rabban Gamliel's instruction to his servant Tavi no longer contradicting the primary position of the mishnah. The Gemara also beings an example of fire that is fueled by that which is prohibited (in this case, orlah) - can the heat from that fire be used to bake bread? It is an attempt to determine whether the Korban Pesach can be roasted via residual heat from fire (spoiler: not so much). Also, the case of the betrothed daughter of a kohen who commits adultery, whose death sentence may have implications for the fire of the Korban Pesach. Plus, the new mishnah: on the fire-roasted Korban Pesach. [What's What: Ma'aser Sheni]
Chapter 7! Cooking the Korban Pesach... The mishnah says to roast the animal on a skewer of pomegranate wood, and of course the question is why pomegranate wood? Why not a metal spit? The positioning of the animal's limbs and entrails, while roasting, is a matter of dispute as well. Plus, a lot of detail of handling the blood of the animal. Also, Who's Who on R. Acha and Ravina.
Who's Who: Rabbi Tarfon, and his unusual take on terumah. Also, one who violates Shabbat without that action including some constructive aspect, that violation is not complete, for the sake of "melekhet machshevet." According to those who say that one who injures another, the injury is incomplete in this way (and the perpetrator is exempt from a korban chatat), whyever would a Korban Pesach that is brought in ways that disqualify it on Shabbat incur a korban chatat? Indeed, the Gemara goes on to look for constructive aspects to each case of a disqualified Korban Pesach to account of the chatat. Plus: what happens to the disqualified Korban Pesach? Can it be redirected to be a korban shelamim? And if so, does it require a conscious uprooting (akira) to shift its identity? And if it does, what are the implications for the korban?
The Gemara raises one model of a case, following on the positions of the mishnah,that then is applied to several different halakhic cases. Our case study of this? A case of 2 babies who need brit milah on Shabbat and the day after Shabbat, respectively. Or Friday and Shabbat, in turn. What happens when the wrong baby is circumcised on Shabbat? The outcome is different in those two scenarios, in terms of whether the mohel would be obligated in a korban chatat (and whether the baby is considered circumcised). Along with several other mistaken application of the act he means to do (one being a mistaken sexual encounter, where the intent and the error can result in needing to bring a chatat). Is this boundary-pushing or practical in its acknowledging where people can err? Also: R. Meir's opinion on a non-consecrated animal used for a Korban Pesach - in contrast to a blemished animal, which should be obviously unacceptable for sacrifice, that which is not consecrated is not demonstrably problematic.
Does a korban brought in rejoicing (shlamei simcha) have to be at the time of the holiday? Of course, it's a machloket, with a key implication with regard to what should happen on Shabbat. Also, how the chagigah differs when offered on Erev Pesach. And: another very long mishnah... this time, the halakhic discussion on the lack of intent or purpose for the Korban Pesach when it is slaughtered on Shabbat (as compared to previous such discussions, which were about the korban itself, and whether it qualified as a Korban Pesach). The implications for violating Shabbat in slaughtering various cases that don't go the distance as the Korban Pesach.
More on the Korban Pesach and the korban chagigah that is offered with it - Ben Teima's opinion whether the chagigah has to be roasted becomes essential [What's What: Yehuda ben Teima]. The 5th question of the 4 Questions is also telling. Also: What if everyone were impure - how would they bring the Korban Pesach? And also, however would there ever be a case of everyone being impure?! Plus: The story of Ben Dortai, who traveled far enough away so as not to be obligated to bring the Korban Pesach, because he disagreed with the psak about the chagigah.
More on R. Eliezer, R. Yehoshua, and R. Akiva, and their dispute from the mishnah - in terms of what, if anything, can be done on Shabbat, if it could have been done in advance. Also, a new mishnah, on when the korban hagigah comes together with the Korban Pesach, and when you don't. Plus: Acknowledging a pitfall of the podcast and our focus on the discussion along the way.
A departure from the regularly scheduled topics. First, some intricacy in explicating biblical verses, specifically to make a comment on the righteous and the resurrection of the dead - with a real dive into the esoteric, philosophical material. Also, revisiting Shmuel's comment on what will change (and what won't) in the time of the messiah, and God's role in life and death - and resurrection. Plus: On the essence of the day if yom tov, and heat we should do with the day. Also, the sages' appreciation for their own ability to learn Torah, and how Torah sustains the world.
An introduction to the challenges of this daf. A comment on the "isolation" of the metzora. And on the combination of a positive and negative commandment. Plus, on the range of impurities, and the implications of those degrees for what camp one could enter. And - what it may mean to learn these details at some remove from the experience of the Beit HaMikdash.
Chapter 6! We open with a long mishnah on the conflict between what needs to be done on Erev Pesach and what is prohibited on Shabbat. Also: Hillel on this same conflict. [Who's Who: Bnei Beteirah] Among other points, he notes that the Korban Pesach isn't the only korban to conflict with Shabbat - there are sacrifices every week! Plus: How our emotions, or character traits, can get the better of us, whether anger or arrogance, and result in our forgetting Torah because of it, or losing prophecy.
Finishing the 5th chapter: On the third group of the Korban Pesach, which was called the "lazy group" (but doesn't the Gemara stipulate that there are 3 groups? How is it fair to knock the third one??). The world is built to contain the range of professions, both males and females, and more, but some of those are praised and others denigrated (cough, female, cough). Namely, the third group had to exist, but that doesn't make it ideal. Also: A mixture of the blood on the floor would be collected and sprinkled on the altar. But, asks the Gemara, isn't there a halakhic issue with not collecting blood immediately upon shechitah? Apparently, the kohanim were again vigilant, and in their eagerness, managed to spill, apparently regularly. And isn't that blood a halakhic barrier, blocking the feet of the kohanim from the floor? (Not as wet). The service of God via animal sacrifice is a bit foreign, but perhaps no less profound because of it.
A very long mishnah, describing the offering of the Korban Pesach, as presented by 3 separate groups. Also, can we, should we rely on miracles, even in the Beit HaMikdash? Abaye and Rava disagree. Who's Who: Akavya ben Mehalalel. Plus: Two notable Pesachs, as recalled by the Gemara.
When it comes to the shechitah of the Korban Pesach, is it one full action, or are the many component parts considered separate parts? For example, the intent in the kohen's mind vs. what he says about uncircumcised, who cannot participate. Do a person's mouth and heart have to be in agreement?How can this even be a question?! But people misspeak all the time, and they should be protected from those goofs. The question is when does "pigul" (for the wrong intent) kick in? Also, what happens if that shechitah takes place when you still have chametz in your possession (you should have gotten rid of it hours ago!)? How big a problem that will be depends on your intent for the Korban Pesach - from disqualifying it (as a contradiction in terms) and invalidating for any use to simply not counting as the Korban Pesach. Plus: More on the group responsibility for the Korban Pesach.
What can impurity teach about the uncircumcised, who cannot eat from the Korban Pesach? Also, the Book of Yuchasin, lineage, spurs the question: Where are you from? Which grants a window into the travels of Chazal, from Lod to Nehardeah. And the put-downs of Chazal, too. On the one hand, Beruriah is held up as an example of her exceptional learning; on the other, the insult of being obviously upstaged by a woman may be worse than if she'd been male. Which takes the Gemara back to the intent question when it comes to the Korban Pesach, and its uniqueness.
Offering the Korban Pesach with intent for those who are not registered to eat it, or who are not eligible to eat it would disqualify the sacrifice. Unless some of the people who are part of that intent can eat, at least or the mishnah. The question of a mixed crowd - valid and not valid to eat the Korban Pesach - complicates matters, but salvages the karbanot. Also: The Gemara cites a passage from the Tosefta of a parallel case to the mishnah, wherein the kohen's intent was for the wrong group. As well as bringing the biblical verses that recognize the expanding groups that are possible for the Korban Pesach. What if those who are not eligible to eat from the Korban Pesach were included by intending them to do "zerikat ha-dam" - the sprinkling of the blood on the altar? Well, that's a fine machloket between Rabbah and R. Hisda. Perhaps it is not resolved (at least thus far) because it remains theoretical.
Improper intention invalidates the Korban Pesach. Note 4 essential component parts of the sacrifice. The degree of intent here is specific - and yet the case this daf considers is one where correct intent is there together with mistaken intent. Namely, that one could intend for the sacrifice before him to be the Korban Pesach, and also have intent for it to be a korban shelamim... How do those different intents affect the korban? What about a Korban Pesach that is slaughtered with correct intent, but on the wrong day? This seems an extreme, boundary-testing case. Plus: How does one show intent?
The order of the ritual on Erev Pesach: daily offering, Korban Pesach, incense, lighting menorah. Why so? Including, a specific detail about the menorah that makes the difference. Also: What happens when something runs interference to the completion of a sacrifice? Who gets the residual effects? Plus: On acclimating to korbanot.
Turning to the 5th chapter of Pesachim, and embarking on the many details of the Korban Pesach. Which means we must first consider the other korbanot that are offered on that same day, namely the Tamid shel Shacharit and the Tamid shel Bein HaArba'im on the 14th of Nisan. The afternoon offering that takes place every day must be completed before the Korban Pesach (plus a What's What run-down of the possible korbanot). Also: How do we know that the Korban Pesach should be slaughtered at the 8.5th hour? When do the "shadows begin to lengthen"? Does it really need to be a specific time, or just get it done in the afternoon? To make matters more complicated, the discussion here crosses the generations of Chazal. Plus: The order of the day - when Erev Pesach falls out on Erev Shabbat.
NOTE: Tomorrow, we start a new chapter, for those who want to start dad yomi - or start again! || More on how peah isn't relevant for vegetables. Also, the negative history of the kohanim, after corruption crept in. Several examples, including the way they became a disappointment, and worse. Plus, the archeology that backs the Gemara up. Also: 4 times that the Temple courtyard cried out... with a focus on specific stories of where the kohanim went wrong, as well as some comment on how other kohanim were good leaders. And the chapter ends with a backhanded plug for rabbinic authority, and the importance of learning Torah.
Establishing practices as authoritative, by whom, and how? For example: Grafting palm trees on Erev Pesach. Bundling Shema. Trimming hekdesh. Setting aside peah for fields of vegetables. Also: 6 things that Hezkiyahu did, including his famous water tunnel. Plus: A focus on the "bundling of Shema," the famous story on the placement of "Baruch Shem kavod malchuto le-olam va-ed," and whether it should be said out loud or under one's breath. Plus, more on peah, beyond the usual field.
More on talmidei chachamim, and whether everyone should try to practice as per the approach for them. [What's What: Yuhara] With regard to the bridegroom on his wedding night, as well as the previous case of not working on Tisha B'Av in a place where people do work. Also, an abundance of mishnayot, on what was allowed as per different people's practice on Erev Pesach, etc., including calling in a craftsperson then or on chol hamoed.
The blessing on fire comes through Havdalah, which was reportedly created after Shabbat. Which brings us to a list of 10+ things that were created Erev Shabbat, on twilight. Why these things? Why at that time? Also, 7 things created before the world was created. Plus, the creation of tongs - for which you need tongs. Also: That which was created in partnership with man. Fire... and the mule! Also: Things that are kept from people, including the day of consolation. And things that had to be created for the world to function - including the smell of rot. Plus: The local practice of whether people did work on Tisha B'Av - and the contrast with Yom Kippur.