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By V.Srinivasan
Fundamentals of Hindu Philosophy
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Chapter 1 - Hinduism - Religion, Origin, Beliefs, and Gods
This chapter focuses on providing an overview of the framework of Hindu religion, or the Hindu way of life. This chapter goes into the purpose of this video series, which is to enable a framework level understanding of Hinduism and put in perspective, the many different texts, gods, beliefs, and topics commonly discussed around Hinduism.     The video series consists of a total of 15 chapters listed below in addition to a short video about the author.  1. Chapter 1 - Hinduism - Religion, Origin, Beliefs, and Gods 2. Chapter 2 - Hinduism - Goal of Hindu Religion - Enlightenment 3. Chapter 3 - Hinduism - Importance of Mind 4. Chapter 4 - Hinduism - Origin and Evolution 5. Chapter 5 - Hinduism - Path to Enlightenment 6. Chapter 6 - Hinduism - Bhakti Maarga - Enlightenment through Devotion 7. Chapter 7 - Hinduism - Karma Maarga - Enlightenment through Work 8. Chapter 8 - Hinduism - Gnana Maarga - Enlightenment through Pursuit of Knowledge 9. Chapter 9 - Hinduism - Raja Yoga & Tantra - Enlightenment through Absolute Focus 10. Chapter 10 - Hinduism - Vedas and Scriptures 11. Chapter 11 - Hinduism - Upanishad - What is God 12. Chapter 12 - Hinduism - Gods and Prayers 13. Chapter 13 - Hinduism - The significance of Astronomy and Astrology 14. Chapter 14 - Hinduism - Understanding the Universe 15. Chapter 15 - Hinduism - Summary of Hindu Philosophy
June 3, 2020
Chapter 2 - Hinduism - Goal of Hindu Religion - Enlightenment
In this chapter on Hinduism, the goal of Hindu religion is covered, which is Mukti, or enlightenment.  Its true meaning, why it is difficult to attain Mukti, how to attain Mukti, and what happens when we attain Mukti  are some of the areas addressed.  The Goal of the Hindu Religion is to attain Mukthi •Mukthi means eternal peace of mind (Sath-chith-Ananda). Mukthi can be achieved only when one is able to get rid of fear, greed or any trace of attachment to wordly things. •If the mind has to be eternally peaceful, gradually it has to be peaceful at every point of time. •This cannot be achieved easily. •This is a very slow process which has to be achieved over a period by continuous training and practice. •The Hindu Philosophy prescribes various ways by which peacefulness of mind can be achieved, which over a long period can be improved to eternal peace of mind (without fear, greed , or any trace of attachment to worldly things), which is Mukthi. •Even if the desire for materiaistic things such as wealth etc are subdued, desires for finer and stronger desires like fame, name, status, honour etc prove very hard nuts to crack. They remain hidden in the subconscious depths of mind. This makes the task of attaining Mukthi almost impossible. •When Mukthi is attained the soul is liberated from samsara (birth and death cycles of this world).
June 3, 2020
Chapter 3 - Hinduism - Importance of Mind
This chapter on Hinduism emphasizes on the importance of the mind in order to attain Mukti or enlightenment, as the mind controls all our actions. He explains the reasons for mind losing its peace and how to overcome it by focusing on Brahman (God). Hindu religion plays a big role in this process of controlling the mind to attain peace and happiness which benefits the individual and the society as a whole.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 4 - Hinduism - Origin and Evolution
This chapter on Hinduism focuses on the origin of Hinduism and duration of its existence. One can refer back Hindu practices to timelines as old as 432 billion years in history by explaining the Hindu units of time measurement such as Yugas, Kalpas etc.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 5 - Hinduism - Path to Enlightenment
This chapter on Hinduism explains the various paths to enlightenment (mukti)   Bhakti Maarga – Enlightenment through Devotion Karma Maarga – Enlightenment through Work Gnana Maarga – Enlightenment through Pursuit of Knowledge Rajayoga – Enlightenment through Absolute focus  The chapter also touches upon enlightenment while in family life and while leaving family life.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 6 - Hinduism - Bhakti Maarga - Enlightenment through Devotion
This chapter on Hinduism crisply articulates and defines Bhakti Maarga and how to attain enlightenment through devotion. Bhakti Maarga is all about prayers and how prayers can keep one’s mind occupied in constant thought about a God of his/her choice, thus attaining Mukti. This chapter also puts in perspective, various kinds of prayers like Pujas, Sthothras and Japas and how they help in detaching us from material aspects of life to attain Mukti.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 7 - Hinduism - Karma Maarga - Enlightenment through Work
This chapter on Hinduism crisply summarizes Karma Maarga and how to attain Mukti or Enlightenment through Work. Karma Maarga talks about the set of Karmas (duties) prescribed for Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vyshyas and Shudras, the four different societal groups. This chapter also touches on different types of rituals prescribed under Karma Maarga and the respective procedures.   •Karma Maarga (for Brahmins) contemplates performing various ritualistic prayers prescribed by the religion. (For others it may also mean performing the duties as per their Varna; ie for Kshatriyas protecting the kingdom and for Vysyas doing their business). •But the key thing is that the karma has to be done without expecting anything in return and only for the sole purpose of completing the karma. •Like Bhakthi Maarga the key in Karma Maarga also is prayers. However Karma Maarga prescribes elaborate procedures on how to do various prayers •The prayers in Karma Maarga broadly consists of the following: -Daily Karmas – Daily prayers to Gods & Natural Elements done by Brahman men. (Ex. Sandhya Vandana, Samidhadhaana, Agni Hotra) -Homas for various gods– Religious procedures where the element of Fire and offerings to the Fire God are compulsory. (Ex. Navagraha Homa – prayers to 9 planets, Ganapathi Homa – prayers to lord ganapathi) -Yagas – Religious procedures where Fire acts as a medium between man and god. (Ex. Ashwamedha Yaga, Vajapeya Yaga) -Tarpanas – Religious activities that primarily involve offerings to forefathers.(Ex. Pithru tarpanam) -Rituals for key events in one’s life such as Ayush Homa (1st birthday), Uppavitha (Thread Ceremony), Marriage etc. -Apara Kriyas - religious procedures done for deceased persons  •Eternal calmness in the midst of intense activity is the ideal condition to be reached through karma maarga. •The key purpose of Karma Maarga is to continuously do various prayers, by observing all the associated procedures, so as to develop deeper and deeper attachment to the god, which leads to detachment from materialistic aspects, which lead to misery. Thus one is able to attain more and more peace of mind by more and more prayers to the god. •As more and more time is spent on the preparations for the various Karmas and on the actual execution of the Karma itself there is less time for focusing on materialistic aspects which lead to misery. •The list of such rituals which are usually done by a large number of people are given in appendix 3. •The Karma Maarga is contained in Jaimini Sutras, written by Jaimini and is also called Poorvamimamsa. •The Bhakthi and Karma maarga also gives a lot of self confidence to the person thus enabling the person in doing good deeds and in overcoming fears associated with day-to-day life. •In following Bhakti and Karma Maarga the following are very important:  1. Choosing appropriate Guru and following him.  2. concentration of the mind in what we are doing (Dhyana)  3. Reciting of the mantras with appropriate rhythm, pitch and pronunciation.  4. Giving away to others (Dhaana)
June 3, 2020
Chapter 8 - Hinduism - Gnana Maarga - Enlightenment through Pursuit of Knowledge
This chapter on Hinduism focuses on Gnana Maarga and how to attain Enlightenment through the Pursuit of Knowledge. Gnana marga, a more philosophical path to enlightenment, focuses on finding answers to fundamental questions such as ‘Who am I’? ‘Who is God’? ‘How are both related’? Gnana marga also focuses on the relationship between the mind, body, and soul to arrive at a conclusion that the soul is universal and eternal amongst all human beings. •Gnana Maarga contemplates logical thinking and enlightenment on aspects such as who am I?, Who is god?, who are others? •When I say “I” is it my body or my mind or my soul. •Gnana Maarga delves into logical reasoning to these key questions so that a person can understand: There is something beyond body and mind, which activates the body and mind. That one which activates the body and the mind is nothing but soul (Atman).•This leads to further questions whether soul of each person is separate or it is part of a universal/ cosmic soul. What is the relationship between the soul of each person called Jeevathma with the cosmic soul called Brahman. •Finding answers to these questions through deduction and elimination processes leads to the finer understanding of who am I. The more the understanding matures the greed, fear, anger, miserliness etc are removed from the mind. •Thus the mind attains more and more peace leading to Mukthi. •At death of the body the entire sukshma sharira leaves the body and enters another body at rebirth. Based on its previous experience this sukshma sharira develops the new body into which it has entered. The instrument used in building the body is mainly the prana (Vital energy). The material out of which the physical body is built are gathered through food. While the physical body is a created one, the soul is inanimate and sentient. It is not created. The god himself appears as the soul of every living being. The soul is birthless, deathless and eternal. •The Aathma (Soul) is neither the doer nor the experiencer. It is constant witness to all action and experiences of the Jeeva, as the later passes through the three states (Sushupti, Swapna, Jagruti) again and again from birth to death. •The soul is one and undivided. The sukshma sharira consisting of mind and intellect of different living beings get illuminated or energized by the same soul like several distinct objects get illuminated by the sun. •The infinite God has split himself into myriads of atomic souls and lodged himself separately within the minute vigyanamaya kosha (Intellect and sensory organs) of every creature. •The sukshma sharira consists of three sheaths called Vigyanamaya kosha (intellect and five subtle senses of knowledge -Gnanendriyas), Manomaya kosha(mind) and Pranamaya kosha(five pranas and five sense of action - karmendriyas). With these three koshas body is made up of five elementary bhuthas (also called Tanmatras) – ether, air, fire, water and earth (panchabhuthas) •Prana is the vital energy and it is said to be in five kinds corresponding to different physiological functions. They are as under:Prana moves down from the base of the throat to the navel (the pranic center or kanda) and energizes all the vayus. It also moves up from the navel to the throat. Apana moves from the navel down to the floor of the pelvis. Vyana moves from the core out to the periphery). Udana moves primarily up from the throat up to the head. Samana moves from the periphery of the body into the core.The various Upanishads put forth logic and arguments on Who am I and other questions explained earlier leading to finding answer about Brahman (God) through Gnana Maarga.The Gnana Marga is also contained in Brahmasutra written by Vedavyasa. The Gnana Maarga is contained in Uttaramimamsa.Through Gnana Maarga, when one realises that everyone is part of the same Brahman the fear, greed, miserliness, enemity etc., disappears and mind becomes more and more peaceful leading to Mukti.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 9 - Hinduism - Raja Yoga & Tantra - Enlightenment through Absolute Focus
This chapter on Hinduism summarizes the key tenets of Rajayoga and how to attain Enlightenment through Absolute Focus.  This chapter touches upon its eight courses and how practicing these can help one attain Mukti. The chapter also focuses on Tantras, a practice of controlling one’s mind to focus only on God even in extreme levels of distraction to reach Mukti.  •Generally when we say Yoga we all think Yoga is exercise to various parts of the body including breathing techniques which can make our body and mind very active. •These techniques are called Hathayoga. •While Hathayoga is mainly for the well being of the body, the Raja Yoga is intended towards controlling of one’s mind in such a way that it becomes dispassionate and peaceful under any kind of adverse circumstances and finally mingles with Brahman ( God). •Rajayoga consists of eight successive courses , which are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyachara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. •Through these levels one has to focus his mind more and more towards the God (Brahman) so that at the stage of Samadhi, mind loses its grip on all other matters and only the object of Dhyana, ie the God occupies the mind. •Thus one reaches Mukthi. •Tantras are another group of Shashtras which dwelve on Shakthi (energy). Tantra means liberation of energy and expansion of consciousness from its gross form. It is a method to expand the mind and liberate the dormant potential energy. •There are different group of Tantras prescribed for Tamasic (laid back), Rajasik (energetic and ambitious) and Satvik (spiritually evolved) people called Pashwachara, Virachara and Divyachara. • There are 64 prominent Tantras and they prescribe hundreds of rituals and ceremonies for three different groups of people indicated above. Tantras’ principles form the basis of all yogic practices. •Some of the tantras require the sadhakas (practitioners of tantra) to contact with attractive sense objects such as wine and woman but at the same time draw his mind away from such things and fix it towards his chosen god. Sometimes the tantra sadhakas has to sit on a corpse in a lonely crematorium on the darkest night. •It is expected that by Tantric practices mind becomes dispassionate about various matters which create greed, fear, anger etc and attain Mukthi over a period. •The practitioner of Tantra gets ability to influence the mind of the audience through the use of appropriate tantric methods depending on the nature of the audience (Tamasic, Rajasik, Satvik).
June 3, 2020
Chapter 10 - Hinduism - Vedas and Scriptures
This chapter on Hinduism explains the origin of the fundamental pillar of Hinduism – the Vedas.  The four Vedas are summarized and the chapter further goes into explaining various Hindu scriptures such as Bhramanas, Aranyakas, Bhashyas, Upanishads, Smriti, Shashtras. This chapter also touches upon Itihasas and Puranas and their primary message that everything ultimately leads to Brahman (God).  •Vedas are the fundamentals of the Hindu religion •When the universe got created these vedic hymns were supposed to be humming in the air and the saints could infer these due to their super natural powers •There are four vedas in Hindu religion which have evolved as above. 1. Rig Veda, 2. Yajur Veda, 3. Saama Veda 4. Atharva Veda •While Rig, Yajur and Saama veda, are called Thrayee ie, three fundamental pillars for realizing Brahman (god), the Atharva veda is a synthesis of these three. •While Saama veda is mostly poetic, Rig and Yajur veda consists of poetry and prose. •Several portions of the Rig veda are also found in Yajur veda and Saama veda •While Rig veda focuses on Gnana Maarga, Yajur veda’s key focus is Karma Maarga and Saama veda’s focus is Bhakthi Maarga •The texts of the various vedas are called Veda Samhitha or Shruthi. They are based on direct revelation and hence their authority is unquestioned. •Apart from the veda samhithas, there are various annotations and detailed explanations to vedas called Brahmanas and Aaranyakas. •Based on the concepts relating to Gnana Maarga in vedas various Rishis have expounded and analysed the concept of Brahman and these are called Upanishads. •Bhashyas are the commentary on vedas, upanishads and sutras etc •Shashtras are the teachings of Hinduism by which the people are governed. ‘Shas’ – rule to govern. ‘Shastras’ – that by which one is governed. •All other Hindu Shastras (Ithihasa, Purana, Dharma, Artha, Kama, Moksha, Kavya, Bhashya, Sutra, Nibandhans etc.) are called Smruti. •Itihasas and Puranas are also other major part of Hindu Shastras. •Itihasas are considered to be the stories which happened in a particular period when the people who created them lived ( Ramayana happened during the period of Valmiki) and Mahabharatha happened during the period of Vedavyasa). Ithihasa means history as it truly happened. Ramayana and Mahabharatha are considered to be Ithihasas for the Hindus. Bhagavadgita, a part of Mahabharatha, also contains very important teachings. •The key teachings of Ramayana, Mahabharatha and Bhagavadgita are given in Appendix 5. Puranas are ancient texts eulogizing various deities, primarily Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva through divine stories. Puranas may also be described as a genre of important Hindu religious texts notably consisting of narratives of the history of the universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of kings, heroes, sages and demigods and descriptions of Hindu cosmology, philosophy, and geography. The Puranas are frequently classified according to the three aspects of the divine Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. For people who cannot understand the teachings of Vedas and Upanishads, Puranas tell the same teachings by way of stories so that the teachings get imbibed in the minds of the person. Thus Puranas are shastras for common man told by way of stories. In each of the Puranas, righteousness is upheld by god and the people doing misdeeds get punished. The key teaching of the Puranas also is that the Brahman is the ultimate . The list of Puranas is given in Appendix 6.  Appendix 6: Puranas - shastras for common man told by way of stories -Brahma Purana -Padma Purana -Vishnu purana -Shiva Purana -Bhagavatha Purana -Narada Purana -Markandeya purana -Agni Purana -Bhavishya Purana -Brahma Vyvartha Purana -Linga Purana -Varaha Purana -Skanda purana -Vamana Purana -Koorma Purana -Matsya Purana - Vaayu Purana - Garuda Purana - Bramhanda Purana
June 3, 2020
Chapter 11 - Hinduism - Upanishad - What is God
The Upanishads are Hindu scriptures that focus on the following questions: 1. Who is God?  2. Who am I?  3. What is my relationship with God?  4. What are the characteristics of God?  5. How is Soul and God related? This chapter on Hinduism also summarizes the three states of existence of living beings– Jagruti, Swapna and Shushupti which are linked to the concept of body, mind and soul and how the soul is the ultimate God. Further, the chapter also covers the different schools of thought on Brahman (God) Based on the concepts relating to Gnana Maarga in Vedas ,various Rishis have expounded and analysed the concept of Brahman and these are called Upanishads. •There are more than 100 Upanishads out of which 10 to 15 Upanishads are quite famous. •The key questions analysed in the Upanishads are under: Who am I? – is it my body or my mind or something beyond this. Who is god? - is it within me or outside of me, is it separate or is it all-pervasive. What is my relationship to god ? What is the characteristics of the god? Whether it has form, fragrance etc etc. •These questions are analysed through deduction and elimination process in different Upanishads in different ways  •One of the ways in which it is established that there is something which activates the body and mind is as under: There are three states of Human existence as under: 1. when a person is awake (called Jagruthi) 2. When a person is sleeping and in dream ( called Swapna) 3. When a person is in deep sleep (Sushupthi) When somebody is awake, his inner organs (gnanendriyas) relating to various feelings such as pleasure, fear etc are activated by the actions of his various organs (eyes, ears, mouth, hand etc) called karmendriyas When he is in dream (Swapna) even though his karmendriyas are idle and not working, he still perceives pleasure, fear etc through his mind directly controlling gnanendriyas. This shows that the mind is independently working even when body is at sleep. In deep sleep (sushupthi) even the mind is at rest but when he gets up the next day he is able to realize himself and understand upto the previous sleep what all had happened. This shows that there is something beyond body and mind which keeps a tab of all these and which makes the body and mind to act.  •The Hindu Philosophy calls this as the Soul of the person. Thus the existence of the soul beyond body and mind is proved by one of the Upanishads. •There are discussions in various Upanishads about what happens to the soul after death of a person ; as per Upanishads when a person dies only his body dies and the soul is eternal. •There are various discussions as to whether the soul of each person is individual or is it part of cosmic soul. These discussions lead to evolving of various philosophies like Advaitha, Dvaitha and Vishitadvaitha as we will see later. •In Taitreya Uapnishad the god (Brahman) is defined as the one : •from which every living being in the world has come •Because of which every living being in the world lives. •To which every living being in the world goes back once it ceases to exist •Against this definition various items such as Anna (food) , Prana (breath), Mano (Mind) and Ananda(bliss) are compared to find that everything is God.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 12 - Hinduism - Gods and Prayers
This chapter on Hinduism focuses on how various Gods evolved starting with the five natural elements during the early Vedic period. It also goes into the key activities of universe such as creation, preservation and destruction associated with Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva respectively. This chapter explains how various Gods like Ganapati and Subramanya, Vasus, Rudras and Adityas, the Dasavataras, Acharyas, and more evolved over time. The chapter goes on to explain that formless God is accepted in Hinduism if one is able to focus his mind on such a Brahman (God)
June 3, 2020
Chapter 13 - Hinduism - The significance of Astronomy and Astrology
This chapter on Hinduism explains the deep connection of Hindu religion with Astronomy and Astrology and the impact of planetary and star positions on human life. All festivals in Hinduism are associated with the astronomical concepts of solar and lunar system of months. Further the chapter goes in to the Hindu discovery of Kepler’s law of planetary motion thousands of years ago.  Essentially, Astronomy and Astrology have had a major impact in the Hindu way of living over thousands of years.  •Astronomy and Astrology are deeply connected with Hindu religion. •The Hindus had detailed knowledge of the motion of sun, moon, planets of the solar system in the galaxy and the stars contained in the galaxy (knowledge of Astronomy).They further had the knowledge of the effects of these motions on the lives of human beings (knowledge of Astrology). •They defined the planets as well as houses in which they were positioned as responsible (Karakas) for various aspects of life and depending on the strengths/ weakness of the planets or the positions, advocated various Pujas/ Homas to be done or various stones to be worn to attain prosperity and overcome obstacles. •Hindus believed that the position of the ascending sign at the time of birth, sun, moon, and the planets at the time of birth and at different points of time due to their motion have effects on various aspects of life of the human beings. •The Hindu calendar follows the movement of sun (Sauramaana) or moon (Chandramaana). In the solar based calendar every year starts from the time the sun enters the first point of Aries and ends when the sun leaves the last point of Pisces. Every month starts from the time sun enters each zodiacal sign (Raashi) and ends at the time when it leaves that sign. Thus the entire calendar is based on exact times and not based on any approximations. •In the Lunar based calendar, every month is from one new moon to the next new moon and the shortfall between the lunar month and the solar movements is adjusted by one extra month in every 2.7 years. •Further the Hindus were aware that the earth revolved around the sun in an elliptical path. In English astronomy there is a theory called Kepler’s laws of planetary motion which states that in its path around the sun each planet traverses equal area in equal interval of time. This means when the earth is nearest to the sun (perigee) it will travel 30 degrees (one Raashi) in less time compared to the time taken to travel the same 30 degrees when it is farthest to the sun (apogee). If we see the Indian solar calendar the months near January (perigee) are around 28/29 days and months near July(apogee) are 31/32 days. Thus it is very clear that the Hindus were aware of the laws relating to planetary motion even thousands of years back. •All Hindu festivals are related to astronomical movement of sun and moon; new moon, full moon, sun entering a particular zodiacal sign, sun starting its northwardly or southwardly motion etc etc. •In Hindu Astrology, there are 12 zodiacal signs (Raashis), 27 major stars (Nakshatras) and 9 planets (7 actual planets and 2 shadow planets (Chaya grahas) representing the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they travel in the celestial sphere).
June 3, 2020
Chapter 14 - Hinduism - Understanding the Universe
This chapter on Hinduism talks about the concept of Universe (Brahmanda) as per Hinduism and how the Universe goes through the eternal cycle of creation, preservation and destruction continuously.  The Universe (Brahmanda) goes through the creation (Shrishti), Preservation (Sthithi) and destruction (Pralaya) cycles eternally. These cycles repeat at different levels at the end of each Yuga, Mahayuga and Kalpa. The Universe (Brahmanda) comes from Brahman, rests in him and merges with him. It is under the mighty rule of Brahman everything in nature is kept in its proper place, every function is regulated , order and harmony everywhere are maintained. Brahman cannot be directly understood by the senses, mind and intellect but he resides in every living being (Antharyami) and controls them. He is the Aathman or Soul. Brahman is eternal, inifinite, ever-free and is beyond time, space and causation. He cannot be limited by any form or attribute and he is transcendental. Nobody knows creation (Shrishti). The why and how of Shristi can be never be traced by human intellect. As per the Hindu philosophy god by his own will and mysterious powers become all objects in the world. First he appears as Akasha, then as Vayu, then as Agni, then as Varuna, then as earth. The process goes on and he forms himself as the first living being in the world called Hiranya Garbha. Then he proceeds to manifest into numerous worlds, gross and fine, as well as their contents. – Jeevas. Jeevas may be either Chara (Moving) or Achara(non-moving). However every jeeva is conscious and able to recognise. Every jeeva is subject to the sensations of pain and pleasure. It is a Kartha and Bhoktha.(doing and experiencing) – Based on their action in one life Jeeva goes from birth to birth. Between the man and Brahman there are various living beings outside the earth which human beings cannot perceive. Inhabitants of each of these worlds form a class by themselves. Some of these classes are: Yaksha; Sadhya; Kinnaras, Gandarvas and Devas. Each occupy worlds of their own. Further as per Hindu Philosophy, the Brahmanda (Universe) comprise of higher world (Swarga), our world and lower world (Paathala) There is also a theory of seven worlds above the earth (Bhu, Bhuva, Suva, Jana, maha, Thapa, Satya) and seven worlds below the earth (Athala, Vithala, Suthala, Rasathala, Thalathala, mahathala, Paathala) There is also another way of classification of the higher worlds as Pithru loka, Deva loka and Brahma Loka. All these suggest numerous sub divisions of Brahmanda(universe) Another thought was each of these worlds are under a presiding deity Agni, Vaayu, Varuna etc. The gross body (cosmic body) to which all the souls belong is called Brahman. The gross mind and intellect (cosmic mind and intellect) which controls all the mind and intellects of jeevas and who creates all Jeevas is called Hiranyagarbha. Hiranyagabha is the first being which came out of Brahman in this Universe. The gross physical mechanism (cosmic physical body) which pervades all the physical bodies of the universe is called Virat. Each jeeva is a portion of Brahman, HIranyagarbha and Virat.
June 3, 2020
Chapter 15 - Hinduism - Summary of Hindu Philosophy
This chapter on Hinduism summarizes the previous 14 chapters in this video series. It reiterates the ultimate purpose of life in Hinduism is to attain eternal peace (Mukti) and that there are multiple routes to reach Mukti (Enlightenment). Attaining full eternal peace (Mukti) is nearly impossible as it is extremely difficult to control natural emotions however, the pursuit towards this goal will result individual peace and societal harmony.  As may be seen from the previous videos various ways have been prescribed by the Hindu religion to reach Mukthi. As the people are of different levels of intellectual maturity and are of different characters, the same way or process may not appeal to everyone, hence the different ways (Maargas). However the fundamental for everyone is to reach Mukti (which is ultimate peace of mind). Reaching Mukti is a very difficult task. No singular path may give us peace of mind. Hence we may have to follow a combination of paths which appeal to us and syncs in our mind so that we get more and more peace of mind. The key is to overcome Bhaya (fear) and get rid of Kama (lust), Krodha (anger), Moha (desire), Lobha (greed), Mada (pride), Ahankara (ego), Irshya (jealousy), Ghrina (hatred). These are very difficult to overcome. Hence even to whatever extent we get peace of mind and overcome these negative qualities , by practicing these Maargas, it is good for us and the for the society.
June 3, 2020