Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War
By Pacific Atrocities Education
Get closer to the untold forgotten history of the Pacific Asia War with Damian Abernathy. Learn more about topics like bioweapon in Unit 731, Japan before Pearl Harbor, and more.
Episode 27: Colonization in China - How it Affected Trade in the Modern World
Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War • By Pacific Atrocities Education • Jul 31, 2020
Episode 27: Colonization in China - How it Affected Trade in the Modern World
Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War • By Pacific Atrocities Education • Jul 31, 2020
Wang Xuan- A Woman Working Tirelessly to Seek Justice for Victims of Unit 731
Meet Wang Xuan, a woman who is working tirelessly to seek justice for victims of biological weapons of Unit 731. Born in 1952 in Shanghai, China, Wang Xuan graduated from a university in China and worked as an English teacher for over ten years. In 1993 she received a Master's Degree in Education with distinction from the University of Tsukuba in Japan. In 1995, she discovered by chance what would turn out to be the cause to which she would dedicate her life's work. From a news article in an English newspaper about the First International Symposium on Unit 731 held in Harbin, China, she learned that Japanese peace activists had been reported going to Chongshan Village, Yiwu, Zhejiang Province, China, to investigate the plague epidemic caused by Unit seven three one's bacterial warfare in World War II. This cause had been special in Wang Xuan's heart as her family was from Zhejiang. During WWII, Zhejiang was of strategic importance, as several airfields in the area were used as Allied bases. The Zhejiang Jiangxi Railway also was viewed as an important supply line. The Imperial Japanese Army then launched strategic attacks on the railway from May to September of 1942. This was also directed at the allies in retaliation for the "Doolittle" air raids on Tokyo by the U.S. bombers. Due to the number of ground troops in the area, the Japanese Imperial Army considered it considerably more cost effective to use biological weapons than any other method. If you like this type of content, please consider subscribing to our channel.
January 12, 2021
Episode 71: The Attack on Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor was a United States naval base on the island of Oahu, located west of Honolulu. On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy bombed the Pearl Harbor Naval Base in a surprise attack. Admiral Yamamoto of the Imperial Japanese Navy came to the conclusion that for the Japanese to be victorious in the pacific, they had to destroy the American fleet at Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor was considered to be geographically perfect for the United States to have their Pacific fleet based there. The island had a narrow entrance and shallow water which made it an ideal and impenetrable fort. An attack by enemy forces was thought to have been impossible. Prior to the attack, Japanese Naval forces practiced the attack at Kagoshima Bay, a Japanese base. It was described as the “twin sister” of Pearl Harbor for its near-identical structure. References World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor Documentary. Date Accessed September 19, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnQ_6h3VtRo Pearl Harbor Naval Base. Date Accessed September 22,2017.https://www.pinterest.com/dmschaffner/world-war-ii-and-pearl-harbor/ USS Arizona Memorial. Date Accessed September 19,2017.https://visitpearlharbor.org/history-of-the-uss-arizona-memorial/ USS Oklahoma. Pearl Harbor-USS Oklahoma: The Final Story. Date Accessed October 3,2017.http://www.pbs.org/program/pearl-harbor-uss-oklahoma-final-story/
December 1, 2020
Episode 70: The Battle for Burma
Burma was a mountainous country nestled between British India and Japan occupied China. Prior to 1941, Burma was of little importance to countries such as Great Britain and the United States. The mountainous region of Burma discouraged any type of trade or travel. Only once did the campaign of the Japanese to control Southeast Asia began, did Great Britain and the United States realize the value of Burma. From the beginning, Great Britain and the United States agreed that Burma was strategic in defeating Japan. Interestingly enough, Great Britain and the United States differed in their motives for protecting Burma. First, Great Britain viewed Burma as a barrier between British India and Japan occupied China. The barrier between these two countries would secure the safety of the “Crown Jewel of the British Empire”. In contrast, the United States saw Burma as a lifeline for China, which was under occupation by Japan. The United States believed that if they were to hold Burma, the Chinese could overthrow Japan and take back their country. The continued support of the Chinese was an effort by Franklin D. Roosevelt to gain a potential ally in China. References Xu, Guangqiu. War Wings: The United States and Chinese Military Aviation 1929-1949. Greenwood Press (2001). American Office of War Information. The Stilwell Road.1945. Narrated by Ronald Reagan. BBC Worldwide, Nugus/Martin Productions Ltd. Gladiators of World War II: The Chindits. Narrated by Robert Powell.2002. British Broadcasting Casting.TV Burma Star Association. Burma Campaign: Diary 1942-1945. Date Accessed September 15,2017.https://www.burmastar.org.uk/burma-campaign/diary-1941-45/1945/
November 20, 2020
Episode 69: The Underground Philippines Resistance
The Imperial Japanese Forces attacked Pearl Harbor and the Philippine Islands simultaneously. This planned attack on these two specific areas was a strategic attack that meant American control in the Pacific and expand Japan’s territory. Following the surrender of the Allies at the Battle of Corregidor, all radio connections and communications ceased as the Japanese military invaded the Philippine Islands. Despite the lack of communication, some American and Filipino soldiers were able to evade the Japanese and go into hiding. One of those soldiers who was able to escape was Ramon Magsaysay Sr. who would become a prominent leader in the Western Luzon Guerrilla Force. References Xu, Klytie; Salinas, Baterina Anne Stacey. Philippines’ Resistance: The Last Allied Stronghold in the Pacific. Pacific Atrocities Education.2017 Encyclopedia Britannica.Hukbalahap Rebellion. Date Accessed October 6, 2017.https://www.britannica.com/event/Hukbalahap-Rebellion Britannica Encyclopedia.Hukbalahap Rebellion. Date Accessed October 6,2017.https://www.britannica.com/event/Hukbalahap-Rebellion. Wikipedia. Ramon Magsaysay Sr. Date Accessed October 6, 2017.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramon_Magsaysay Pinterest.Child soldier. Date Accessed October 6, 2017.https://www.pinterest.com/pin/238550111491419417/?lp=true https://www.tumblr.com/search/philippine%20world%20war%20ii Villasanta, Art. The Filipino Nation-in-Arms and its defeat of the Empire of Japan in World War II. Date Accessed October 6,2017.http://filipinonationinarms.blogspot.com/2013/08/the-philippines-was-grave-of-dai-nippon.html
November 16, 2020
Episode 68: Lee Kuan Yew and the Occupation of Singapore
There is no person more important to Singapore’s modern history than Lee Kuan Yew. He led Singapore into the modern age, guiding Singapore from a devastated British colony to a thriving and prosperous independent city-state. His determination to reshape Singapore was shaped in part by his experiences during the brutal Japanese occupation. References Lee, Kuan Yew. From Third World to First: the Singapore Story, 1965-2000: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew p. 502 Chew, Cassandra. “The Rickshaw Puller Who Saved Lee Kuan Yew.” The Straits Times Josey, Alex. Lee Kuan Yew. p. 41 Bowring, Philip. “Lee Kuan Yew Obituary.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 22 Mar. 2015, www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/22/lee-kuan-yew. Chew, Cassandra. “The Rickshaw Puller Who Saved Lee Kuan Yew.” The Straits Times, The Straits Times, 19 Jan. 2016, www.straitstimes.com/singapore/the-rickshaw-puller-who-saved-lee-kuan-yew. Chng, Henedick. “4 Intriguing Stories of How 4 of S’Pore’s Founding Fathers Survive the Japanese Occupation.” Mothership.SG , Mothership, 15 Feb. 2017, mothership.sg/2017/02/4-intriguing-stories-of-how-4-of-spores-founding-fathers-survive-the-japanese-occupation/. Josey, Alex. Lee Kuan Yew. Time Books Internaitonal Times Centre, 1980. “Lee Kuan Yew.” The Economist, The Economist Newspaper, 22 Mar. 2015, www.economist.com/news/asia/leekuanyew. Lee, Kuan Yew. From Third World to First: the Singapore Story, 1965-2000: Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew. Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2015.
November 13, 2020
Episode 67: The Plight of the Guerrilla Forces in the Philippines in WW2
During World War 2, there were non-Filipinos soldiers who decided not to surrender with some running off to safety and others being cut off in their location at the time of surrender behind the Imperial Japanese Army's line. These men chose to serve along the side of their Filipino allies during World War II in the resistance against the Japanese thus becoming guerrillas. This list of men also includes those who were inserted through submarines on various Philippine islands. These men were sent there to conduct different intelligent functions most commonly radio operators or coastwatchers, but they fought with guerrillas and served beside them as well. These Filipino and American soldiers went through inhumanity and deprivation at the hands of the Japanese who were responsible for transporting them. The Guerrillas also fell subject to horrible torture by the Japanese followed by beheading usually after being forced to dig their own graves. References http://www.west-point.org/family/japanese-pow/Guerrillas/Guerrillas-Main.htm https://history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur%20Reports/MacArthur%20V1/ch10.htm http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/guerrilla-war-on-luzon-during-world-war-ii/
November 9, 2020
Episode 66: The History of the Flying Tigers
The Flying Tigers, officially known as the First American Volunteer Group, were American pilots who fought in the Chinese Air Force during World War II between 1941 and 1942. They are best known for popularizing the shark's mouth design frequently painted American military aircraft. In addition, their now-famous unit insignia of a winged Bengal tiger was designed by the Walt Disney Company. References 1. Eisel, Braxton. The Flying Tigers: Chennault's American Volunteer Group in China. Washington, D.C.: Air Force History and Museums Program, 2009. https://permanent.access.gpo.gov/gpo66524/AFD-101028-007.pdf. 2. Elder, Robert. "American Volunteer Group (AVG)." In Encyclopedia of Chinese-American Relations, edited by Yuwu Song. McFarland, 2009. http://libproxy.lib.unc.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mcfcham/american_volunteer_group_avg/0?institutionId=1724 3. Ference, Greg. "Chennault, Claire L. 1893-1958." In Encyclopedia of Chinese-American Relations, edited by Yuwu Song. McFarland, 2009. http://libproxy.lib.unc.edu/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/mcfcham/chennault_claire_l_1893_1958/0?institutionId=1724
October 30, 2020
Episode 65: Education in Singapore During Japanese Occupation
The Japanese occupation of Singapore took place from 1942 to 1945 after the British surrendered in February 1942. One month later, in March 1942, the Japanese government adopted an educational policy as part of the “Principles for the Gunsei Disposition of the Occupied Area”. The objectives of the policy were to teach industrial technologies and the Japanese language as the lingua franca of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, to promote the spirit of labor, and to unite the cultures of the indigenous peoples of the southern region with Japanese culture under the spirit of Hakko Ichiu (universal brotherhood). Education was essentially a propaganda tool. References 1. Forging a Singaporean Statehood, 1965-1995: The Contribution of Japan By Di Robin Ramcharan pg. 93 2. A History of Modern Singapore, 1819-2005 By C.M. Turnbull p.209 3. New Perspectives on the Japanese Occupation in Malaya and Singapore, 1941-1945 edited by Yōji Akashi, Mako Yoshimura pg 48-49
October 29, 2020
Episode 64: Philippines Battles in World War II
The Philippines played a critical role in American strategy during World War II. Before the war, the United States had large numbers of troops stationed on the islands. After U.S. forces were defeated from the islands, regaining the Philippines became an important goal, especially for General MacArthur, who had been forced to evacuate from his headquarters there in 1942 when the Japanese attacked. Accordingly, MacArthur adopted a strategy of island-hopping, which would allow him to steadily drive Japanese forces out of the islands they had conquered, bringing him closer and closer to Japan itself. Unfortunately, the Philippines’ proximity to Japan meant that they were among the last of the occupied islands to be retaken; fighting on the island of Mindanao continued up until the Japanese surrender in August of 1945. References 1. Bluhm, Raymond K. "Battle of Corregidor." Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Corregidor. 2. Morton, Louis. The Fall of the Philippines. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1953. https://history.army.mil/books/wwii/5-2/5-2_Contents.htm#part1.
October 26, 2020
Episode 63: Japan’s Unofficial War with China
During the early twentieth century, the Imperial Japanese Army invaded and occupied Chinese lands without ever officially declaring war. In 1915, Japan issued the secret Twenty-One Demands to Chinese president Yuan Shikai, with the intent to claim economic and political power over China. The Demands were divided into five groups, with the Group Five demands including concessions similar to those Japan had forced on Korea. After twenty-five rounds of negotiations and intense political maneuvering on President Yuan’s part, the Twenty-One Demands were agreed to, except for the Group Five demands. The other Demands, though, reinforced Japanese control of southern Manchuria, Shandong, and eastern inner Mongolia. References Cavendish, Richard. “Pu Yi, Last Emperor of China, Is Pardoned.” History Today, vol. 59, no. 12, Dec. 2009. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Second Sino-Japanese War.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 23 Dec. 2017, www.britannica.com/event/Second-Sino-Japanese-War. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Zhang Zuolin.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 31 May 2018, www.britannica.com/biography/Zhang-Zuolin. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. “Marco Polo Bridge Incident.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 30 June 2018, www.britannica.com/event/Marco-Polo-Bridge-Incident. Huang, Yanzhong. “China, Japan and the Twenty-One Demands.” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 21 Jan. 2015, www.forbes.com/sites/yanzhonghuang/2015/01/21/china-japan-and-the-twenty-one-demands/. “Invasion of Manchuria and Japanese Aggression.” The Pacific Theater, Lynden Pioneer Museum, 3 June 2014, lyndenpacifictheater.wordpress.com/china-invasion/. The Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. “The Mukden Incident of 1931 and the Stimson Doctrine.” Milestones in the History of U.S. Foreign Relations, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/mukden-incident. Overy, Richard. “China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival by Rana Mitter – Review.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 6 June 2013, www.theguardian.com/books/2013/jun/06/china-war-japan-rana-mitter-review. Roosevelt, Franklin D. “On the Declaration of War with Japan - December 9, 1941.” Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Marist College, docs.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/120941.html. Twitchett, Dennis C., et al. “China.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 July 2018, www.britannica.com/place/China/War-between-Nationalists-and-communists. von Stauffenberg, Claus. “World War II: China's Declaration of War Against Japan, Germany and Italy.” Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/china-s-declaration-of-war-against-japan-germany-and-italy-december-1941. Wright, Edmund, editor. A Dictionary of World History. 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, 2006
October 23, 2020
Episode 62: A Pariah of Singapore - General Henry Gordon Bennett
The Fall of Singapore was a military disaster contemporary with Pearl Harbor, but it led to division and finger-pointing instead of rallying the Allies further against Japan. The Japanese invasion of Malaya (today’s Malaysia) began December 8th, 1941, landing troops on its shores and pushing south through the peninsula. References 1. Australian War Memorial. Lieutenant General Henry Gordon Bennet. n.d. web page. 27 June 2018. 2. Bell, Morgan. Gordon Bennet. n.d. web page. 27 June 2018. 3. Diamond, John. General Arthur Percival: A Convenient Scapegoat? 17th June 2016. web page. 27th June 2018. 4. Lodge, A.B. Bennett, Henry Gordon (1887-1962). 1993. web page. 27 June 2018.
October 21, 2020
Episode 61: What Do People Do with Offensive Wartime Memorabilia?
Human beings have been collecting things for as long as anyone can remember. While there is some disagreement as to whether this activity is purely psychological in basis, there are certainly a number of possible motives for why a person might collect things. People may collect things because of some sentimental value or monetary value; they may also collect because it is fun, to preserve the past, or simply because they enjoy the hunt. Some people collect things that are unusual, such as swizzle sticks, outfits worn by celebrities, or even string. It only makes sense that at some point, somebody might end up collecting something that seems taboo or offensive to another person. References 1. Daniel Faris, “The Problem with Using Psychology to Explain Collecting,” ZMEScience, Sept. 5, 2017, https://www.zmescience.com/other/feature-post/problem-using-psychology-explain-collecting/. 2. Mark B. McKinley, Ed.D., “The Psychology of Collecting,” The National Psychologist, Jan. 1, 2007, https://nationalpsychologist.com/2007/01/the-psychology-of-collecting/10904.html. 3. “Offensive,” Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/offensive. 4. Mariko Oi, “What Japanese history lessons leave out,” BBC News, March 14, 2013, https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-21226068. 5. “Show & Tell,” Collectors Weekly, https://www.collectorsweekly.com/stories. 6. Ben Marks, “Why Would Anyone Collect Nazi?” Collectors Weekly, June 23, 2011, https://www.collectorsweekly.com/articles/why-would-anyone-collect-nazi/. 7. Chunichi Shimbun, “Japanese war memorabilia pile up at museums, while online auctions of artifacts remain unregulated,” The Japan Times, Aug. 21, 2017, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/08/21/national/japanese-war-memorabilia-pile-museums-online-auctions-artifacts-remain-unregulated/#.W4N7GcJOnIU. 8. Kiyoshi Nishiha, “Let War Memorabilia Come Home,” Apr. 18, 2010, http://www.hlswilliwaw.com/nishiha/english.htm. 9. Chunichi Shimbun, “Japanese war memorabilia pile up at museums, while online auctions of artifacts remain unregulated,” The Japan Times, Aug. 21, 2017, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/08/21/national/japanese-war-memorabilia-pile-museums-online-auctions-artifacts-remain-unregulated/#.W4N7GcJOnIU. 10. Kenneth W. Rendell, “What Are Those World War II Collectibles Really Worth?” Bottom Line, May 15, 2010, https://bottomlineinc.com/life/collectibles/what-are-those-world-war-ii-collectibles-really-worth.
October 19, 2020
Episode 59: The Building of Thailand-Burma Railroad aka "Death Railroad"
About a two-hour drive from the capital city of Bangkok is the western province of Kanchanaburi. With an etymological name translating to “The City of Gold”, Kanachanburi is exemplified by its national parks, waterfalls, and elephant sanctuaries. Following the flow of the Khwae Yai river, spectators can gaze upon farmers tending to their rice patties or marvel over the natural landscape of hills and mountains in the backdrop of the city. But behind the façade of lush forestry, lies a horrific memory of World War II; the forced construction of a railroad system that took the lives of over 100,000 individuals. References 1. “Anzac Centenar.” The Thai–Burma Railway and Hellfire Pass (2018). Australian Government Department of Veterans Affairs, www.anzaccentenary.gov.au/. 2. Eldredge, Sears, “The Thailand-Burma Railway: An Overview” (2014). Book Chapters. Book 21. http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/thdabooks/21 3. Foreman, Liza. “Riding Thailand's WWII Death Railway.” (2014) The Daily Beast, www.thedailybeast.com/riding-thailands-wwii-death-railway 4. Kratoska, Paul. “The Thailand-Burma Railway, 1942-1946: Documents and Selected Writings” (2005) Routledge. 5. Kinvig, Clifford. “River Kwai Railway: The story of the Burma-Siam railroad” (2005) Conway.
October 15, 2020
Episode 58: The Rise of Laotian Nationalism During WW2
Looking back, one could say that Laos was in an interesting place during World War II. The country was occupied by two forces, both allied and axis powers while simultaneously fighting off Thai forces near the border, underwent internal struggles due to the conflicting ideals of members of the royal family, and the country was involved in one of the most disastrous bombing tactics in the History of the World. Yet, despite these incident, the country still managed to fight their way towards eventual independence in the late 1970s. References 1. Hays, Jeffrey. “LAOS, WORLD WAR II AND THE CHAOTIC EVENTS AFTER THE WAR.” Facts and Details, May 2014, factsanddetails.com/southeast-asia/Laos/sub5_3a/entry-2936.html 2. “An Accord on Laos Is Reached.” HISTORY, A&E Television Networks, 13 Nov. 2009, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/an-accord-on-laos-is-reached 3. Wright, Rebecca. “What 80 Million Unexploded US Bombs Did to Laos.” CNN, Cable News Network, 6 Sept. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/09/05/asia/united-states-laos-secret-war/index.html. 4. Planet, Lonely. “History of Laos.” Lonely Planet, Lonely Planet, www.lonelyplanet.com/laos/history. 5. Stuart-Fox, Martin, and Stuart-Fox Martin. “A history of Laos.” Cambridge University Press, 1997.
October 12, 2020
Episode 57: The Burma Campaign
From January 1st, 1886 to January 4th, 1948 Burma was a territory amassed by the British; who seized it for its tremendous wealth. Burma was wealthy due to the Silk Trade route and its agriculture. Burma’s precious resources such as rubies and gems, gas, oil, tin, and rubber made it a prime target for many countries seeking profitable commodities for the war effort. References 1. Frey, Kurt M. Colonel. Burma Campaigns: Battles Over Lines Of Communication 2. Schwartz, Jill < https://www.worldwildlife.org/blogs/sustainability-works/posts/myanmar-looks-to-create-sustainable-rubber-industry > 3. Sullivan R, Gordon. < https://history.army.mil/brochures/burma42/burma42.htm > The Burma Campaign Timeline January 1st, 1886- Burma is colonized by the British. Burma becomes a British colony. December 7th, 1941- Bombing of Pearl Harbor triggers American participation in WWII. January 1942- General Stilwell becomes the leader of the NATC. Reorganized and retrained Chinese to prepare them for the Burma Campaign. The campaign is effective as it led to a string of victories. August 1943- The Japanese “declared” Burma independence and established occupation of the country. Independence was a mere ploy to gain control of Burma. The Burmese catch on that the Japanese do not intend to grant them true independence. October 1943- The Burma Road Falls into Enemies Hands as a temporary victory for the Japanese. Temporarily defeating exhausted American forces. December 1944- Allied offensive campaign begins Sin American army meet in Yunnan. March 27th, 1945- Burmese uprising against Japanese occupation. June 1945- The Japanese withdraw after being halted in India and leave Burma. January 4th, 1948- Burma becomes an independent country after two centuries of occupation.
October 9, 2020
Episode 56: The Timeline of the Decolonization of Asia Post WW2
While independence movements were established well before the beginning of World War II, the conclusion of the war itself served as an important catalyst in forcing foreign powers to retreat and grant nation-states their independence. The following is a structured timeline on when Asian states gained their independence and a brief overview of what lead to their freedom. References: 1. Frederick, William H. Visions and heat: The making of the Indonesian revolution. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1989. 2. “Malayan Emergency.” National Army Museum, www.nam.ac.uk/explore/malayan-emergency 3. Editors, History.com. “World War II.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 29 Oct. 2009, www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/world-war-ii-history#section_7 4. Cavendish, Richard. “Malayan Independence.” History Today, Volume 57 Issue 8, 8 Aug. 2007, www.historytoday.com/richard-cavendish/malayan-independence 5. Ang, Ien, and Jon Stratton. "The Singapore way of multiculturalism: Western concepts/Asian cultures." Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia (1995): 65-89.
October 7, 2020
Episode 55: Emperor Hirohito Before and After the War
“That’s all you have to say! I think the highest symbol of human irresponsibility is the Emperor! Followed by officers like you!” - Okuzaki, The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan. Emperor Hirohito was a complex political figure of war: he was responsible for the rise and fall of Imperial Japan before and after World War 2. He ascended to the Japanese throne on December 25th, 1926; a significant time in history for the Japanese imperialism view which led to expansionism until Japan’s surrender to the Allied forces at the end of the war. Although he was as responsible as the rest of his army in committing crimes in the Pacific Asia War, he was able to negotiate with the west to escape prosecution. In fact, he was not even called as a witness during the whole Tokyo Trial as his deal with the United States kept the Supreme Shrine out of the trial. Under his leadership, not only did Japan would rise industrially in just 80 years, Japan would emerge a new era in the reconstruction of modern Japan. References 1. Bix, Herbert P. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (New York, 2000). 2. Bix, Hebert P. War Responsibility and Historical Memory: Hirohito's Apparition (Volume 6 | Issue 5 | May 03, 2008). 3. Burma, Ian. The Wages of Guilt: Memories of War in Germany and Japan (New York, 1994) 4. Citino, Robert. < https://www.nationalww2museum.org/war/articles/launching-war-hirohito-and-pearl-harbor> 5. Kawamura, Noriko. Emperor Hirohito and the Pacific War (University of Washington Press, 2015). 6. Kitamara, Jun < https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0090684> 7. Wetzler, Peter. Hirohito and War: Imperial Tradition and Military Decision Making in Prewar. (University of Hawaii, 1998).
October 5, 2020
Episode 54: What Does the Rising Sun Flag Mean?
The rising sun flag refers to the flag of Imperial Japan’s military, particularly the Imperial Japanese Navy, during and before World War II. It has a red circle on a white background with sixteen red rays extending from the circle. It was adopted as the naval ensign in 1870. The rising sun is also sometimes used to refer to Japan’s national flag, the Hinomaru (“sun disk”). The exact origin of the two flags is not clear, but they have been used together for centuries. The meaning of the rising sun flag has been developed through time, with countries of East Asia having their own opinions of the flag. Rising Sun: The Innocent Fascist Symbol References 1. Japan in World Politics, Henry Dyer, pg 24 2. Our Country’s Flags and the Flags of Foreign Countries, Edward S. Holden, pg 154-155 3. Case Studies on Human Rights in Japan, By Roger Goodman, Ian Neary, pg 77-78 4. Flag Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of National Symbols By Tim Marshall 5. https://theconversation.com/why-do-flags-matter-the-case-of-japan-44500 6. Modern Japanese Cuisine: Food, Power and National Identity By Katarzyna Joanna Cwiertka p 117-118 7. Toshié: A Story of Village Life in Twentieth-Century Japan By Simon Partner pg 55-56 8. https://www.historychannel.com.au/articles/japans-rising-sun-flag-becomes-official/ 9. The Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture edited by Sandra Buckley pg 422-423 10.http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/kpct/kp_koreaimperialism.htm 11. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/06/27/japan-has-a-flag-problem-too/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.267355b6cd8b
October 2, 2020
Episode 53: The Philippines' Struggles for Independence
From Spanish Colonialism to the Malolos Republic and Resistance to the U.S. Control, then the Commonwealth of the Philippines and WWII, and final Independence. On June 12th, 2020, the Philippines celebrated the 122nd anniversary of their declaration of independence from Spain in 1898. However, like most holidays, the history behind this date is a good deal more complicated than a declaration and a day on a calendar. Books Philippines' Resistance: The Last Allied Stronghold in the Pacific Pinay Guerrilleras: The Unsung Heroics of Filipina Resistance Fighters During the Pacific War References 1. DLSU - Manila. "Philippine History." n.d. Pinas. Web Page. 18 June 2018. 2. Encyclopedia Britannica. "Philippines." 2015 June 2018. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web Page. 18 June 2018. 3. Gov.PH. "About the Philippines." n.d. Republic of the Philippines National Government Portal. Web Page. 18 June 2018. 4. History.com Staff. "This Day in History: Philippine independence declared." 12 June 2018. History.com. Web Page. 18 June 2018.
September 30, 2020
Episode 52: Four Fronts of WW2 Military Tactics: Blitzkrieg, Kamikaze, U Boats, & Cryptography
By the time of WW2, war strategies were a lot more complicated than the end of World War 1. In World War 1, much of the war was fought using trench warfare. However, during World War 2, soldiers were engaged in different styles of war including land battle - Blitzkrieg, air battle - Blitzkrieg, naval battle - U-Boats, and mathematical battle - Cryptography. References 1. History.com Editors. “Blitzkrieg.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 14 Oct. 2009, www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/blitzkrieg. 2. Frieser, Karl-Heinz (2005). The Blitzkrieg Legend: The 1940 Campaign in the West[Blitzkrieg-legende: der westfeldzug 1940]. trans. J. T. Greenwood. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 3. Simha, Rakesh Krishnan. “How Russia Blunted the German Blitzkrieg.” Russia Beyond, Russia Beyond, 12 May 2015, www.rbth.com/blogs/2015/05/12/how_russia_blunted_the_german_blitzkrieg_43057. 4. “How Alan Turing Cracked The Enigma Code.” Imperial War Museums, Imperial War Museums, 2019, www.iwm.org.uk/history/how-alan-turing-cracked-the-enigma-code. 5. Rössler, Eberhard. The U-boat: The evolution and technical history of German submarines. Naval Inst Press, 1981.
September 28, 2020
Episode 51: The Nazi Flag vs. The Rising Sun Flag
There is nothing that can spark quite so much controversy than the Nazi flag. Its black swastika and red backdrop can produce a strong flurry of extreme emotions to many around the world. The flag itself was made famous as it became the official state flag for Nazi Germany and became a potent symbol of Axis aggression during the Second World War. The flag of the Rising Sun was first originally used throughout feudal Japan and during the Meiji Reformation officially became a battle flag for the new imperial military. During the Second World War and well before, the Empire of Japan used the Rising Sun flag for not just state use or functions but also naval jacks and army banners, cementing its image as a symbol for an aggressive and imperialist Japan. To many Koreans, Filipinos, Chinese, and countless Asian ethnicities, the Rising Sun Flag occupied the same moral space as the swastika and the Nazi flag. References 1. “Flags and Other Symbols Used By Far-Right Groups in Charlottesville.” Southern Poverty Law Center, 12 Aug. 2017, www.splcenter.org/hatewatch/2017/08/12/flags-and-other-symbols-used-far-right-groups-charlottesville. 2. Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York: Macmillan. 3. “Korean Lawmakers Adopt Resolution Calling on Japan Not to Use Rising Sun Flag.” The Korea Herald, 29 Aug. 2012, www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20120829001376&cpv=0. 4. Taylor, Adam. “Japan Has a Flag Problem, Too.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 27 June 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/06/27/japan-has-a-flag-problem-too/?utm_term=.cd4909f536ca.
September 25, 2020
Episode 50: The Legend of the Golden Lily Operation
Rumors of hidden treasure from wartime loots locating in the islands of Mindanao, Philippines, have been around ever since Lieutenant General Yamashita surrendered to the Allied Forces after he lost the Battle of Manila in 1945 which marked the end of World War II in the Philippines. According to this rumor, there are billion dollars worth of gold waiting to be found in Southeast Asia. Lately, this gold treasure is even involved in a lawsuit involving the former president of the Philippines. It is no surprise that “Yamashita’s gold” has been the center of conspiracy and accusations since World War 2 given its enormous amount of value. Interestingly, many of the accused surrounding the gold include people from different roles in society from Yakuza members to the royal family of Japan. References 1. AP NEWS. July 20 1996. https://www.apnews.com/f9d140b7106e715fb9f44f9317901442 2. Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos / Arelma Deposit Case. 3. Legend of the Golden Lily 4. Seagrave, Sterling. Seagrave, Peggy Gold Warriors: America's Secret Recovery of Yamashita's Gold. January 17, 2006.
September 23, 2020
Episode 49: The Japanese Economy After WWII
After WWII, Japan’s economy boomed: it rivaled the US in economic recovery in just 80 years up until the end of the Cold War era. Japan rose from the devastating destruction to recovery in the wake of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to becoming one of the top-performing economies in the world. Looking at Japan’s economic growth, it is hard to imagine that it once suffered from being on the losing side of WW2 with most citizens of its nation barely had their basic needs met. Japan’s westernization, military growth, defeat, and economic growth were products of interaction with the United States since Matthew Perry showed up at its pier on the very day of July 8th, 1853 forcing isolated Japan to open up to trade with the United States. References 1. Alexander, J. Arthur. “In the Shadow of the Miracle. The Japanese Economy Since the End of the High- Speed Growth” Lexington Books, (2002). 2. Chung, William K., and Denison, Edward F. “How Japan’s Economy Grew So Fast” Washington Press. (1976). 3. Time Magazine < http://factsanddetails.com/media/2/20091003-76650af76aa1d603_large-450x598.jpg> [Retrieved 1/31/2019]. 4. Nippon Stock Exchange [Retrieved 1/24/2019]. 5. Post War Recovery. < http://www.grips.ac.jp/teacher/oono/hp/lecture_J/lec10.htm>. [Retrieved 1/31/2019] 6. Masahiro, Takada. “Japan’s Economic Miracle: Underlying Factors and Strategies for the Growth” https://www.lehigh.edu/~rfw1/courses/1999/spring/ir163/Papers/pdf/mat5.pdf>. March 1999. 7. Takatoshi, Itō. “ The Japanese Economy, Volume 10.” [Retrieved 1/31/2019].
September 21, 2020
Episode 48: Corporate Slave Labor During World War II of BMW, Audi, and More
Compensation, apologies, and memorialization remain controversial when talking about corporate responsibilities post-World War II. To this day, former POWs and Holocaust survivors continue to fight for the private sector to acknowledge their role and complicity in utilizing slave labor to their monetary and economic advantage. Social reconciliation, in essence, is the recognition of past actions and taking future initiatives and as such, listed below are companies that were participated in slave labor during World War II. References 1. Ethier, Beth, and Beth Ethier. “Mitsubishi Apologizes for Using U.S. POWs as Slave Labor in World War II.” Slate Magazine, Slate, 20 July 2015, www.slate.com/news-and-politics/2015/07/mitsubishi-apology-slave-labor-company-admits-using-american-prisoners-of-war-in-world-war-ii-mines.html. 2. Brook, Timothy. Japanese Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China. Harvard University Press. 2001. 3. Li, David K., and David K. Li. “BMW Admits 'Regret' over Using Nazi Slave Labor during WWII.” New York Post, New York Post, 1 Nov. 2016, www.nypost.com/2016/03/07/bmw-admits-regret-over-using-nazi-slave-labor-during-wwii/. 4. Gumbel, Peter. “Some Companies Still Struggle with Their Dark WWII History.” The Japan Times, 10 June 2014, www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2014/06/10/commentary/world-commentary/companies-still-struggle-dark-wwii-history/#.XF-4BhNKhsM. 5. Staff, Toi. “German Car Maker Audi Reveals Nazi Past.” The Times of Israel, 27 May 2014, www.timesofisrael.com/german-car-maker-audi-reveals-nazi-past/. 6. “Nazi Goebbels' Descendants Are Hidden Billionaires.” The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com, 27 Aug. 2017, www.jpost.com/International/Nazi-Goebbels-descendants-are-hidden-billionaires-503531.
September 18, 2020
Episode 47: The Repositioning of Power - Thai Monarchy Pre and Post WWII
October 13, 2016, the day that Thailand, and the world, lost the longest-reigning monarch in modern history. King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand took the throne shortly after World War II, and for over 70 years. After the news of his passing at Siriraj Hospital, Thai citizens were in mourning. For an entire year, Thai citizens wore black garments out of respect for the death of their monarch. Over the past year, over 12 million citizens came to pay respect to the King at his final resting place at the Grand Palace in Bangkok. To them, King Bhumibol was the only king they knew. From June 9 of 1946 to October 13 of 2016, he witnessed vast transformations within his country, from that of an agricultural-based economy to a modern, socioeconomic climate with a growing middle class. Book Siamese Sovereignty: Thailand's Strategy of Political Duality During World War II References 1. Baker, Chris, and Pasuk Phongpaichit. A history of Thailand. Cambridge University Press, 2014. 2. Winichakul, Thongchai. "Siam’s Colonial Conditions and the Birth of Thai History." Unraveling Myths in Southeast Asian Historiography (2011): 23-45. 3. Neuman, Scott. “Royal Cremation In Thailand To End Year Of Mourning For Beloved King.” NPR, NPR, 26 Oct. 2017, www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/10/26/560154819/royal-cremation-in-thailand-to-end-year-of-mourning-for-beloved-king. 4. Lefevre, Amy Sawitta. “Technicolor Thailand Is Back after a Black-Clad Mourning Year for...” Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 30 Oct. 2017, www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-king/technicolor-thailand-is-back-after-a-black-clad-mourning-year-for-late-king-idUSKBN1CZ0A4. 5. Crossette, Barbara. “Bhumibol Adulyadej, 88, People's King of Thailand, Dies After 7-Decade Reign.” The New York Times, 19 Jan. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2016/10/14/world/asia/thai-king-bhumibol-adulyadej-dies.html. 6. "Thailand applies sufficiency economy philosophy to promote sustainable development". Oxford Business Group. 2016. Retrieved 2016-11-12. 7. Head, Jonathan. “How King Bhumibol Shaped Modern Thailand.” BBC News, BBC, 13 Oct. 2016, www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33956560.
September 16, 2020
Episode 46: The Basics of San Francisco Peace Treaty
The San Francisco Peace Treaty (SFPT) was an agreement, made by 48 nations, that came into effect on April 28, 1952. This treaty was a bilateral decision that inevitably helped secure the enduring relationship between the United States and Japan. The treaty included the termination of the Imperial Japanese Empire, Allied occupation in Japan, and detailed territorial as well as postwar mandates Japan had to follow in order to conclude the nation’s gloomy past. It was a way to create a form of international rules not through conflict and terror, but through peaceful dispute and deliberations. References 1. “TOKYO HIGH COURT, JUNE 12, 1980.” Taiwan Basic, taiwanbasic.com/insular/tokyo-1980.htm. 2. “Treatment of Takeshima in the San Francisco Peace Treaty.” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan , 30 July 2015, google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&ved=2ahUKEwjS7s-vur_iAhUjMX0KHWBpCMcQjRx6BAgBEAU&url=https://www.mofa.go.jp/a_o/na/takeshima/page1we_000062.html&psig=AOvVaw1Ig36xeHAuX9doGnuVuJjA&ust=1559175194045673. 3. “Treaty of Peace with Japan.” WayBackMachine, WayBackMachine, web.archive.org/web/20010221045459/http://www.taiwandocuments.org/sanfrancisco01.htm. 4. “What Was the San Francisco Peace Treaty?” SF Peace Treaty, Pacific Atrocities Education, www.sfpeacetreaty.org
September 14, 2020
Episode 45: The Theory of Immigration for Asian, Latino, and African
When speaking on immigration it is important to differentiate the experiences of all peoples. American Social Studies curriculum for example, only presents the topic of immigration as a ‘unified or monolithic experience.’ These different spectrums of experiences are not taught in schools and therefore some believe in the idea of, “Freedom For All”. Yes, this experience may have been the case for many European immigrants, however, Asian, Latino, African immigrants, and even Native Americans experience were anything but the “American Dream”. References 1. Ciardiello A. Vincent. "Is Angel Island the Ellis Island of the West? Teaching Multiple Perspective-Taking in American Immigration History." Social Studies 103, no. 4 2012, 171-76 2. Pfaelzer Jean. “ ‘Driven out’, The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans”, Random House, New York, 2007. 3. Philip Q. Yang. "A Theory of Asian Immigration to the United States." Journal of Asian American Studies, 2010, 1-34. 4. Walz Eric. “Nikkei in the Interior West: Japanese Immigration and Community Building, 1882-1945.” University of Arizona Press, 2012.
September 11, 2020
Episode 44: Battle of Sittang Bridge & Its Implications for Burmese Conquest
5:22 am February 22, 1942. Burma British forces, mainly the 17th Indian Infantry Division, were falling back against Japanese advancement. The had already given everything they had at the Battle of Bilin River. Weak, tired, and, disheartened, infantry members retreated back to the bridge admits heavy enemy artillery. But then an unfortunate decision was made; blow up the bridge before it could be seized by the Japanese. The division and other units that happened to be on the bridge found themselves stranded. References 1. https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/the-17th-indian-division-in-burma-disaster-on-the-sittang/ 2. https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/the-17th-indian-division-in-burma-disaster-on-the-sittang/ 3. http://ww2today.com/22nd-february-1942-the-battle-of-the-sittang-river-burma 4. https://history.army.mil/brochures/burma42/burma42.htm
September 9, 2020
Episode 43: A Japanese Linguist and an American Soldier
If you were asked to describe a “soldier,” what kind of image does that word conjure up in your mind? Popular media has generally portrayed the American soldier as a muscular white male, or sometimes a white female, and while they may have constituted the majority of the U.S. military force, history fails to give recognition to the Asian American women who contributed to the U.S.’s victory by taking on many different roles during World War II to assist the armed forces. References 1. Ano, Masaharu. "Loyal Linguists: Nisei of World War II Learned Japanese in Minnesota." Minnesota History 45, no. 7 (1977): 273-87. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20178492. 2. Hirose, Stacey Yukari. “Japanese American Women and the Women's Army Corp, 1935-1950." M.A. thesis: University of California, Los Angeles, 1993. 3. Moore, Brenda L. Serving Our Country: Japanese American Women in the Military during World War II. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003. 4. Sato, Marie. "Japanese American women in military." Densho Encyclopedia. n.d. Accessed July 5, 2019. https://encyclopedia.densho.org/Japanese%20American%20women%20in%20military/.
September 8, 2020
Episode 42: Seri Thai Movement, Covert Operations in Southeast Asia
In contingent with the bombing of Pearl Harbor in the last month of 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into Southern Thailand from Malaysia, calling for free passage into the country. Phibun Songkhram, both Commander and Chief of the Royal Thai Army and the Prime Minister at the time, allowed Japanese entry, vowing to maintain Thai independence in lieu of Japan's colonial activities enacted against neighboring Southeast Asian countries. As Japanese troops within the country and demands to utilize Thai facilities and resources increased, Thailand was now fully engulfed by the war. By January 1942, Bangkok declared war on Great Britain and the United States. Book Siamese Sovereignty: Thailand's Strategy of Political Duality During World War II References 1. https://www.cia.gov/news-information/featured-story-archive/2008-featured-story-archive/free-thai-movement.html 2. The Thai Resistance Movement During The Second World War, John B. Haseman, Chalermnit Press, Bangkok. 3. http://www.insigne.org/OSS-Thai.htm 4. https://th.usembassy.gov/ambassador-davies-visits-phrae/
September 4, 2020
Episode 41: The Malayan Campaign & Japanese Blitzkrieg
A summarized timeline of the Japanese Malayan Campaign, beginning from the Attack on Pearl Harbor to the Fall of Malaya. References 1. Ho, Stephanie. “Malayan Campaign.” National Library Board Singapore, 19 July 2013, eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_2013-07-19_162143.html. 2. Wigmore, Lionel. The Japanese Thrust. Vol. 4. Australian War Memorial, 1957. 3. Tsuji, Masanobu. Japan's Greatest Victory/Britain's Greatest Defeat. Da Capo Press, 1997. 4. Tsuji, Masanobu, and H. V. Howe. Singapore, 1941-1942: the Japanese version of the Malayan campaign of World War II. Oxford University Press, 1988. 5. Chen, C. Peter. “Invasion of Malaya and Singapore.” WW2DB, World War II Database, ww2db.com/battle_spec.php?battle_id=47.
September 2, 2020
Episode 40: Chinese Americans in WASP Program
Although the media depict women’s involvement in the war mostly in a sidekick role as homemakers, nurses, and factory workers, they were a lot more than that. They were spies, farmers, nurses, and pilots. This post will be focused on the two Chinese women who participated in the WW2 and their work and sacrifice for humanity. Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) was formed as a civilian women pilots’ organization in order to free up the men for the war. The members of WASP were trained to become test pilots, ferriers, and trainers as women were not allowed to participate in combat at the time. WASP delivered a total of 12,650 aircraft of 77 types. They logged a total of 60 million air miles for the Air Force but wasn’t recognized until 1977. References 1. https://www.npr.org/2010/03/09/123773525/female-wwii-pilots-the-original-fly-girls 2. https://web.archive.org/web/20150906182545/http://waspmuseum.org/jackie-cochran-biography/ 3. https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/jacqueline-cochran-blazing-a-trail-for-women-in-aviation-service/ 4. https://waspfinalflight.blogspot.com/2013/02/maggie-gee-44-w-7-feb-1-2013.html 5. https://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/lee_hazel_ying/#.XO8hA5NKhhF
August 31, 2020
Episode 39: An Overview of Thailand's Participation in WW2
In December 1941, over the course of only a few days, the Thai government moved from a public stance of neutrality to a military alliance with Japan. Thailand’s alliance with Japan would ultimately define Thailand’s role in World War II in the Pacific Theater. After allying itself with Japan, Thailand would go on to declare war against the British and Americans as well as assist the Japanese in supplying their troops through the completion of the infamous Thailand-Burma Railway. Thus, it is valuable to examine how this rapid shift in government policy took place in Thailand. Book Siamese Sovereignty: Thailand's Strategy of Political Duality During World War II References 1. Eldredge, Sears, “The Thailand-Burma Railway: An Overview” (2014). Book Chapters. Book 21. http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/thdabooks/21. 2. Keyes, Charles F. and Jane E. Keyes. “Thailand.” Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Encycloaedia Brittanica, Inc., 9 June 2019, https://www.britannica.com/place/Thailand/Chulalongkorn-and-the-foundations-of-modern-Thailand. 3. Swan, William L. "Thai-Japanese Relations at the Start of the Pacific War: New Insight into a Controversial Period." Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, vol. 18, no. 2, 1987, pp. 270-293.4. Wilson, Hugh. "The Best of Friends: Britain, America and Thailand, 1945-48." Canadian Journal of History, vol. 25, no. 1, 1990, pp. 61-84.
August 28, 2020
Episode 38: Fortune Cookies and the American Identity
The fortune cookie factory in San Francisco's Chinatown is often characterized as an emblem of the past-the last of its kind. Located in a crowded alleyway, tourists gather to see the meticulous folding of the tiny cookie, over and over again. The repetition, the machinery all provide an allure of the past. The fortune cookie factory continues to be a symbol of Chinatown, Chinese-American food and Chinese culture, despite decades-old research complicating the narrative of the fortune cookie by introducing its Japanese origins. References 1. Lee, Jenny. The Fortune Cookie Chronicles: an Adventure in the World of Chinese Food. Hachette Book Group, 2008. 2. Mao, Luming. Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric. University Press Colorado, 2006. 3. Racho, Suzie. Unwrapping the California Origins of the Fortune Cookie. The California Report, 2016. 4. https://www.kqed.org/news/11742748/unwrapping-the-california-origins-of-the-fortune-cookie 5. Lee, Jennifer. Solving Wrapped in a Mystery Inside a Cookie. The New York Times, 2008. 6. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/16/dining/16fort.html?_r=1&pagewanted=1
August 26, 2020
Episode 37: Pre-WW2 Japan's Economic Policies
What makes Japan especially unique, when considering the economic history of the country, would be their implementations of policies. Analyzing Japan’s Economic Miracle after World War II cannot be done without first considering the country’s background in economic policies. It is not just the morale of the citizens nor assistance from other countries that drives Japan’s economy forward, rather it is through policies, enacted and enforced by the government, followed by their citizens, that initiates this type of growth. References 1. “Economic Change.” Meiji Period, jordanahjilljessiesarah.weebly.com/economic-change.html. 2. Flath, David. The Japanese Economy. Oxford University Press, 2014. 3. Hays, Jeffrey. “TOKUGAWA IEYASU AND THE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE.” Facts and Details, Sept. 2016, factsanddetails.com/japan/cat16/sub107/item506.html. 4. “The Meiji Restoration and Modernization: Asia for Educators: Columbia University.” The Meiji Restoration and Modernization | Asia for Educators | Columbia University, afe.easia.columbia.edu/special/japan_1750_meiji.htm. 5. Yasuka. “The Sakoku Years of Japan.” KCP International, 16 Oct. 2014, www.kcpinternational.com/2014/10/the-sakoku-years-of-japan/
August 24, 2020
Episode 36: The Fall of Rangoon
In March 1942, Japan seized control of the lower region of Burma by taking the city of Rangoon. Rangoon, now known as Yangon, was Burma’s administrative and commercial capital. The city was a crucial communication and industrial center in Burma and had the only port capable of handling troopships. Perhaps most importantly, strategically, the Burma Road began in Rangoon and allowed for a steady stream of military aid to be transported from Burma to Nationalist China. This supply route was essential for both Chiang Kai Shek’s armies as well as allied forces in the region. As a result, the fall of Rangoon to the Japanese had significant consequences. References 1. Bernstein, Marc D. “The 17th Indian Division in Burma: Disaster on the Sittang.” Warfare History Network, 14 Nov. 2018, https://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/the-17th-indian-division-in-burma-disaster-on-the-sittang/. 2. “Burma, 1942.” U.S. Army Center of Military History, 3 Oct. 2003, 3. https://history.army.mil/brochures/burma42/burma42.htm. 4. Hickey, Michael. “The Burma Campaign 1941 - 1945.” BBC, 17 Feb. 2011, https://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/burma_campaign_01.shtml. 5. McLynn, Frank. The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942-45. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2008.
August 21, 2020
Episode 35: Interrogation Revealing Ishii Shiro’s Plan for Biological Warfare
Under the leadership of Commanding Officer Ishii Shiro, Unit 731 in Harbin, Manchuria functioned as the Imperial Japanese Army’s covert weapons research facility. Here, from 1937-1945, Japanese scientists and researchers experimented with lethal bacteriological agents, using animals, prisoners, and innocent Chinese villagers as guinea pigs. The personnel, funded by and at the consent of Emperor Hirohito, ruthlessly created epidemics and slaughtered humans alive, resulting in hundreds of thousands of innocent deaths and unimaginable suffering. Read more about the background of Unit 731 here & view all blog posts relating to Unit 731 here.
August 19, 2020
Episode 34: Post World War II Japan Reflected through Marie Kondo
Marie Kondo has garnered mass mainstream attention through her book The Life-Changing Magic of Tidying Up (2011) and the corresponding Netflix show “Tidying Up With Marie Kondo” (2019). In media, Kondo is known for the phrase “spark joy”. As Kondo helps her clients tidy up their houses, she encourages them to think about if the item “sparks joy”. References 1. Doyle, Mika. “Marie Kondo Credits This Spiritual Practice With Helping Her Figure Out Her Tidying Philosophy.” Bustle, January 24, 2019. https://www.bustle.com/p/how-shinto-influenced-marie-kondos-konmari-method-of-organizing-15861445. 2. Gould, Hannah. “Marie Kondo and Kuyō: Is Throwing Things Away Really a Religious Experience?” Religion News Service, February 20, 2019. https://religionnews.com/2019/02/19/marie-kondo-and-kuyo-is-throwing-things-away-really-a-religious-experience/. 3. “Korean War and Japan's Recovery.” U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war. 4. Wolken, Lawrence C. “The Modernization of an Ancient Culture: Time for Conflict or Cooperation.” SAGE. Mays Business School, n.d. https://maysweb.tamu.edu/sage/gradescourses/9th-12th-grade/economics/the-modernization-of-an-ancient-culture-preface/the-modernization-of-an-ancient-culture-time-for-conflict-or-cooperation/.
August 17, 2020
Episode 33: The Timeline of India's Independence
Though colonized by the Great Britain Empire for almost 200 years, the Indians never gave up their hope for liberty. During 1857 and 1858, the Indians rose against the rule of British East India Company. The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was ultimately unsuccessful, but it still proved to be an important watershed in the history of Indian-British relations and marked the beginning of the Indian Independence Movement. Then did the Non-Cooperation Movement come in 1920 and Mahatma Gandhi rose as one of the most important contributors to India’s decolonization. In 1942, Gandhi led the Quit India Campaign, a mass protest demanding "An Orderly British Withdrawal" from India. References 1. "Indian Freedom Struggle (1857-1947) - Culture and Heritage - Know ...." https://archive.india.gov.in/knowindia/culture_heritage.php?id=5. Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.
August 14, 2020
Episode 32: India’s Involvement in World War II
The view of the World Wars are often through the western lens. World War historiography mostly glosses over the involvement of colonial armies, and other foreign and transnational armies, who played significant and often influential roles in turning the tide of the battle. The colonial armies in India during World War 1 were often marked by acute ethnic division, and the Indian soldiers in the British army had to suffer through food shortages and rise in taxes along with intensive recruitment involving the use of force. This army was different from the force that fought in the First World War on several grounds, as the British had included more Indians in the officer corps, as a response to the nationalist demands. This process was bitterly opposed by many British Indian army officers and led to racial tensions among them. Most Indian officers faced discrimination at the hands of their fellow British officers and were often viewed as outcasts among the larger social club. They were also often paid less and had to endure harsher conditions than their British counterparts. References 1. Basu, S., Bhattacharya, S., & Keys, R. (1999). The Second World War and South Asia: An Introduction. 2. Hotine, M., Lewis, C., Mason, K., Heaney, G., Mrs. Haley, Pape, C., & Mrs. Shaw. (1952). The Survey of India Since the Second World War: Discussion. 3. Redfern, N. (2004). British Communists, the British Empire and the Second World War. International Labor and Working-Class History 4. Roy, Kaushik (2013) Race and Recruitment in the Indian Army: 1880–1918, Modern Asian Studies Roy, Kaushik (2010) Expansion and Deployment of the Indian Army During World War II: 1939-45 5. Roy, Kaushik (2010) Discipline and Morale of the African, British and Indian Army Units in Burma and India During World War II: July 1943 to August 1945, Modern Asian Studies 6. Pradeep P. Barua, Gentlemen of the Raj. The Indian Army Officer Corps, 1817-1949 7. Mohammad Ayub Khan, Friends not Masters. A Political Autobiography (London 1967) 8. Johannes H. Voigt, India in the Second World War (New Delhi 1987), 21-3. 9. Quoted in Chandra et al., India’s Struggle for Independence, op. cit., 448. 10. Perry, The Commonwealth Armies, op. cit., 116. Oriental and India Office Collection 11. Department History, Expansion of the Armed Forces, September 1939-September 1943, Appendix A. 12. Bipan Chandra et al., India’s Struggle for Independence 1857-1947 (New Delhi 1989), chaps 12-13.
August 12, 2020
Episode 31: Little Saigons in America, A Home Away from Home
On April 30th, 1975, the Fall of Saigon occurred and left more than 1.6 million Vietnamese immigrants, to be resettled around the world. Vietnamese immigrants fled in two distinct waves. The first wave of immigrants left in 1975, directly after the Fall of Saigon. This wave of immigrants was mainly made up of the elite and highly educated. Many had ties to the United States after working with or supporting the South Vietnam regime. The second wave occurred throughout the mid-70s and into the early 90s. This wave of immigrants became the majority of refugees that we now commonly known as the “boat people”. Most of these immigrants lived in poverty and were less educated, compared to their previous immigrant counterparts.
August 10, 2020
Episode 30: Opium War, US-China Trade War, and Modern Global Trade
Trade has often been ascribed as one of the core building blocks of a successful and healthy society. This remains true today, as there are a plethora of trade relations branching all around different parts of the world. However, many of these relations connect to a country that has a scarring history of trade deals: China. The most notorious of which is known as the Opium Wars. The Opium Wars are the two conflicts that occurred in China from 1839-1842 and 1856-1860 during the Qing Dynasty due to the British Empire’s want to force a trade with the Dynasty. The effects of this conflict can be felt even today through China’s attitude towards trade deals, the presence of opium in China, and even the western families who got rich off of selling opium to the Chinses populace. References 1. “The Opium Wars in China - Asia Pacific Curriculum.” 2019, https://asiapacificcurriculum.ca/sites/default/files/2019-02/Opium%20Wars%20-%20Background%20Reading.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 2. “The First Opium War: The Anglo-Chinese war of 1839-1842. Essay by Peter C. Perdue - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.” 2011, https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/opium_wars_01/ow1_essay04.html. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 3. “Unequal Treaties with China - ENHE.” 2016, https://ehne.fr/en/article/europe-europeans-and-world/europe-and-legal-regulation-international-relations/unequal-treaties-china. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 4. “5 Elite Families Who Made Their Fortune in the Opium Trade - AlterNet.” 5 June, 2015, https://www.alternet.org/2015/06/5-elite-families-fortunes-opium-trade/. Accessed 23 Aug. 2019. 5. “The Signing and Sealing of the Treaty of Nanking by F.G. Moon - Brown University Library.” 1846, https://library.brown.edu/cds/catalog/catalog.php?verb=render&id=1249001214271904. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 6. “Destroying Chinese War Junks by E. Duncan - National Maritime Museum, London.” 1843, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Destroying_Chinese_war_junks,_by_E._Duncan_(1843).jpg. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 7. “Fast Boat or Smuggler by Captain E. Belcher - Visualizing Cultures.” 1843, https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/opium_wars_01/ow1_gallery/pages/1843_belcher_238_FastBoat.htm. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 8. “As trade war escalates, Chinese remember ‘national humiliation’ - Los Angeles Times.” 13 May, 2019, https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-china-trade-war-tariffs-colonialism-humiliation-20190513-story.html. Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.
August 7, 2020
Episode 29: Intro to Opium War, US-China Trade War, and Modern Global Trade
In 2018, President Trump pulled out of the TPP. The Trump Administration promoted protectionism and it no longer wanted to negotiate trade, among small groups of multiple countries, rather insisting on a bilateral front of negotiations taking place between only two countries. President Trump believed that their current international trade agreements were removing jobs from workers in the United States and outsourcing jobs to other countries such as India and China. As a result, President Trump decided to follow through on his promise to bring back jobs by imposing tariffs on other countries, most notably China, in an attempt to decrease Chinese imports, therefore, decreasing competition for domestic companies and workers. References 1. “The Opium Wars in China - Asia Pacific Curriculum.” 2019, https://asiapacificcurriculum.ca/sites/default/files/2019-02/Opium%20Wars%20-%20Background%20Reading.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 2. “The First Opium War: The Anglo-Chinese war of 1839-1842. Essay by Peter C. Perdue - Massachusetts Institute of Technology.” 2011, https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/opium_wars_01/ow1_essay04.html. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 3. “Unequal Treaties with China - ENHE.” 2016, https://ehne.fr/en/article/europe-europeans-and-world/europe-and-legal-regulation-international-relations/unequal-treaties-china. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 4. “5 Elite Families Who Made Their Fortune in the Opium Trade - AlterNet.” 5 June, 2015, https://www.alternet.org/2015/06/5-elite-families-fortunes-opium-trade/. Accessed 23 Aug. 2019. 5. “The Signing and Sealing of the Treaty of Nanking by F.G. Moon - Brown University Library.” 1846, https://library.brown.edu/cds/catalog/catalog.php?verb=render&id=1249001214271904. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 6. “Destroying Chinese War Junks by E. Duncan - National Maritime Museum, London.” 1843, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Destroying_Chinese_war_junks,_by_E._Duncan_(1843).jpg. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 7. “Fast Boat or Smuggler by Captain E. Belcher - Visualizing Cultures.” 1843, https://visualizingcultures.mit.edu/opium_wars_01/ow1_gallery/pages/1843_belcher_238_FastBoat.htm. Accessed 24 Aug. 2019. 8. “As trade war escalates, Chinese remember ‘national humiliation’ - Los Angeles Times.” 13 May, 2019, https://www.latimes.com/world/la-fg-china-trade-war-tariffs-colonialism-humiliation-20190513-story.html. Accessed 25 Aug. 2019.
August 5, 2020
Episode 28: The Rape of Nanking, Controversy and Coverups
As the name itself implies, The Rape of Nanking is no light subject. It is one of many of Japan’s extended list of war crimes committed by commanders and their troops during World War II. Throughout the seven-week pillaging of what was once Nanking, an estimate of 20,000 to 80,000 Chinese women raped and forced into a life of prostitution as “comfort women”, and 50,000 to 300,000 Chinese civilians were brutalized and savagely murdered. Despite the fact that the massacre was carried out by the Japanese, the Chinese government could partially be blamed as well, due to the Nationalist leader, Chiang Kai-Shek’s inadequate handling of the event, and Communist leader Mao Zedong’s following coverup. The Rape of Nanking has been a topic of debate for historians in the past few decades as no one can seem to pinpoint the exact amount of people decimated, the extent of the acts committed by the Japanese Imperial Army, and whether it was comparable to the Holocaust. Books Battle of Shanghai: The Prequel to the Rape of Nanking References 1. Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. Basic Books, 1997. 2. “Statement by the Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Konoon the Result of the Study on the Issue of ‘Comfort Women.’” MOFA, www.mofa.go.jp/policy/women/fund/state9308.html. 3. Tanaka, Masaaki. What Really Happened in Nanking: The Refutation of a Common Myth. Sekai Shuppan, Inc., 2001. 4. Fingleton, Eamonn. “70 Years Later, Struggle for Nanking Massacre Justice Continues.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 26 May 2011, www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/05/70-years-later-struggle-for-nanking-massacre-justice-continues/239478/. 5. Yamamoto, Masahiro. Nanking: Anatomy of an Atrocity. Praeger, 2000. 6. Editors, History.com. “Nanking Massacre.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, www.history.com/topics/japan/nanjing-massacre. 7. Fish, Isaac Stone. “Why Did China Downplay the Nanjing Massacre?” Foreign Policy, Foreign Policy, 23 Feb. 2012, foreignpolicy.com/2012/02/23/why-did-china-downplay-the-nanjing-massacre/. 8. “Statement by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (Speeches and Statements by the Prime Minister).” Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet, japan.kantei.go.jp/97_abe/statement/201508/0814statement.html. 9. Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi. The Nanking Atrocity, 1937-38 Complicating the Picture. Berghahn Books, 2017.
August 3, 2020
Episode 27: Colonization in China - How it Affected Trade in the Modern World
The colonization of China was a long campaign involving the exploitation of the Chinese economy by the western powers, but mainly of Britain, France, and the U.S. Before this, China was at the center of the world economy throughout the 1700s due to their widely sought exports of porcelain, silk, and tea, all under the era of the Qing dynasty. However, the Qing Dynasty faced many issues and by the end of the 1700s, China was experiencing strains: a quickly growing population, a difficulty of food supply for this population, and a subsequent lack of centralized government control; all of which led to rebellions and a weakening of the dynasty’s power throughout their country. References 1. “China and the West: Imperialism, Opium, and Self-Strengthening (1800-1921) - Asia for Educators, Columbia University.” http://afe.easia.columbia.edu. Accessed 30 Sep., 2019. 2. “The Colonization of China - Aspirant Forum.” 14 October, 2014, https://aspirantforum.com/2014/10/21/colonization-of-china/. Accessed 12 Sep., 2019. 3. Fleming, Peter. The Siege at Peking: The Boxer Rebellion. New York, NY: Dorset Press, 1959. 4. “Old Summer Palace marks 157th anniversary of massive loot - Chinadaily.” 19 October, 2019, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/culture/2017-10/19/content_33436716_2.htm. Accessed 28 October, 2019. 5. Kalipci, Müge. "Economic Effects of the Opium Wars For Imperial China: The Downfall of an Empire." Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 18 (2018): 291-304. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/basbed/issue/39758/470806. Accessed 16 Sep., 2019. 6. “The Opium Wars in China - Asia Pacific Curriculum.” 2019, https://asiapacificcurriculum.ca/sites/default/files/2019-02/Opium%20Wars%20-%20Background%20Reading.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug., 2019. 7. “Hong Kong Sikhs - Angelfire.” 1 June, 2006, http://www.angelfire.com/planet/hongkongsikhs/FLAGTOP-0608141522-25-1-1841-hongkongsikhs.html. Accessed 17 Sep., 2019. 8. Wahed, Mohammad S. “The Impact of Colonialism on 19th and Early 20th Century China.” Cambridge Journal of China Studies 11, No. 2 (2016): 26. https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/257410. Accessed 17 Sep., 2019. 9. Kalipci, Müge. "Economic Effects of the Opium Wars For Imperial China: The Downfall of an Empire." Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 18 (2018): 291-304.
July 31, 2020
Episode 26 Bonus: Pinay Guerrilleras: The Unsung Heroics of Filipina Resistance Fighters
December 8th, 1941 marked the start of the full-scale invasion of the Philippines. With the surrender of the Bataan Peninsula and the fortified island Corregidor in the Spring of 1942, all hope seemed lost. But, almost overnight, the Philippine underground resistance began to take shape. Units made up of guerrilla volunteers from all walks of life participated in the liberation of the Philippines. The women guerrillas of the resistance, or guerrilleras, are one such group who have received less attention in Pacific Theater histories. The names and faces of those Filipina guerrilla soldiers, who led their own units, conducted espionage, nursed the wounded, led raids, or raised armies, have nearly been forgotten. The rigid gender barriers guerrilleras faced both on and off the field of duty resulted in their stories being silenced or relegated to less commanding roles in the aftermath of the war. This book attempts to bring these stories to light so that the legacy of these unsung Filipina resistance fighters lives on. Pinay Guerrilleras: The Unsung Heroics of Filipina Resistance Fighters During the Pacific War
July 29, 2020
Episode 26: Malabar Famine Under British Occupation
William Logan, in his book, Malabar, has explored the famine repeatedly faced by this district and chronicled the history and culture of Malabar. Famine related epidemics and large scale mortalities were persistent in the Malabar during the colonial period. The British documents about this have acknowledged that an artificial famine was possible as the district had continually failed to produce sufficient grains for its home population, and further emphasized that the technological advancements in rail, sea, and road made it practically impossible. But historical records have shown that Malabar had experienced repeated famines during the British rule as a result of imperial indifference in undertaking famine prevention activities. The famines under colonial rule occurred during 1865, 1876, 1891, and 1896. References 1. Priya, P. “MALABAR FAMINE OF 1943: A CRITIQUE OF WAR SITUATION IN MALABAR (1939-45).” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, vol. 75, 2014, pp. 628–638. 2. Hogan, William. “Malabar,” Asian Educational Services, 1989. 3. Malabar Collector to Development Secretary on 16 February 1941, Government of Madras, Revenue Department, G.O.No. 1911, 17 June 1943, Tamilnadu State Archives, Chennai. 4. Malabar Collector to Development Secretary on 16 February 1941, Government of Madras, Revenue Department, G.O.No. 1911, 17 June 1943, Tamilnadu State Archives, Chennai 5. Madras Legislative Council Debate, Official Report, Vol IX, No.3, August 1939, Madras, p. 142, RAK. 6. Travancore Administration Report, 1930-40, p.l 17, Kerala State Archives, Trivandrum 7. Malabar District Gazette, 1939, 320, RAK. 8. Madras Administration Report, 1941, 3 14, RAK 9. Local Administration Department , Bundle No. 51, SI. No. 10, G.O.No. 1843, 17 June 1943 10. Public Health Department, Bundle No. 20, SI. Nos 3, 6, 6,7,12, 14, RAK. 11. Various issues of The Hindu: The Indian Express, Madras, Deshabhimani, Calicut, 1943-44. 12. The Hindu , Madras, 2 January 1941. 13. Civil Supplies Department Files (Hereafter CSD), 1 943, Bundle No.8, SI. No.4, RAK. 14. Revenue Department (1941), Ms. Series, G.O. No. 2565,10 November 1941.
July 27, 2020
Episode 25: Why Did Japan Attacked So Many Southeast Asia Countries in WW2
Japan’s “Meiji Restoration”—which spelled the end of the country’s isolation from the West during the reign of the Tokugawa Shoguns--allowed it to embark upon a campaign of modernization and westernization. Within the scope of a few decades, Japan modernized and became the most powerful country in East Asia, with that result cemented in blood by the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War. Thereafter, Japan decided to emulate the Western Powers that colonized or subdued most of the non-Western world in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; in other words, Japan became an imperial power in East Asia. It annexed Formosa (Taiwan) in 1895, Korea in 1910, and the Caroline and Mariana Islands after World War I. Book Siamese Sovereignty: Thailand's Strategy of Political Duality During World War II Philippines' Resistance: The Last Allied Stronghold in the Pacific Pinay Guerrilleras: The Unsung Heroics of Filipina Resistance Fighters During the Pacific War Fall of Singapore: The Undefeatable British Fortress Conquered
July 24, 2020
Episode 24: War Memory of the Chinese Expeditionary Force
After Communists won the Civil War and founded the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the history of the Chinese Expeditionary Force (CEF) was excluded from the public discourse for a long time due to their political affiliation with the Nationalist government. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that in the 1980s, that situation began to change. The stories of CEF started to be heard in China and many veterans from the CEF are now honored as national heroes. This thesis will examine this shifting narrative, and ultimately answer how and why the memory of World War II has changed in post-war China through the case of CEF. Book The Forgotten Theater of WWII of China-Burma-India: The Untold Story of the First Chinese Expeditionary Force References 1. Guo Shang Mu Yuan Jian Jie. Accessed on July 20th. 2. Mitter, Rana. “War and Memory Since 1945.” The Cambridge History of War, edited by Roger Chickering, Dennis Showalter, and Hans van de Ven, vol, 4: 542–65. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. doi:10.1017/CHO9781139021203.026. 3. Teng Chong Xian Guo Shang Mu Yuan Ji Gou Guan Li Gong Zuo Qing Kuang Hui Bao. Accessed on July 20th. 4. Wo Nu Salon. “An Interview with Writer Ge Yu.” Accessed on July 20th, 2019.
July 23, 2020
Episode 23: WWII and the Progress of the LGBTQ Culture - The Queer Soldier
It has been 75 years since the Allied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy, and 50 years since the riots at the Stonewall Inn, yet these events remain unconnected in popular consciousness. To commemorate the Normandy invasion, images of young male soldiers are abundant, and gallant stories of tragedy, danger, and heroism abound. Yet, as these young soldiers were facing danger and potential death, many were also making key discoveries about their sexual identity. As Pride celebrations continue throughout the month of June, this article will revisit the influence the Second World War had on defining queer communities in the United States. References: 1. "Coming Out Under Fire." In My Desire for History: Essays in Gay, Community, and Labor History, edited by D’Emilio John and Freedman Estelle B., by BÉRUBÉ ALLAN, 100-12. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011. doi:10.5149/9780807877982_berube.9. 2. "Marching to a Different Drummer: Lesbian and Gay GIs in World War II." In My Desire for History: Essays in Gay, Community, and Labor History, edited by D’Emilio John and Freedman Estelle B., by BÉRUBÉ ALLAN, 85-99. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011. doi:10.5149/9780807877982_berube.8. 3. ‘Belles in Battle: how Queer US soldiers found a place to express themselves in World War II.’ The Conversation, by Yorick Smaal. Griffith University. https://theconversation.com/belles-in-battle-how-queer-us-soldiers-found-a-place-to-express-themselves-in-wwii-88019
July 20, 2020
Episode 22: 6 Facts to Share About Women During World War II
International Women’s Day is more than just a hashtag on social media. It is a day celebrated internationally by at least 100 countries such as Afghanistan, Cambodia, Cuba, Laos, Mongolia, Russia, and Ukraine. It has a radical origin with its start with the now-defunct Socialist Party of America in 1909 with demands for voting rights, better pay, and shorter working hours. Here are 5 facts of how women contributed to World War 2 in honor of this day that has been celebrated for over 100 years. References 1. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/rosie-the-riveter 2. https://www.history.com/news/how-world-war-ii-empowered-women 3. http://www.pacificatrocities.org/blog/5-badass-pinays-youve-never-heard-of 4. https://www.history.com/news/comfort-women-japan-military-brothels-korea 5. https://web.archive.org/web/20190118025148/https://dod.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/684700/wasps-were-pioneers-for-female-pilots-of-today-tomorrow/
July 17, 2020
Episode 21: U.S. and Britain's Debates on Post-WWII Negotiations for Thailand
The United States and Britain, though supported by the Free Thai movement’s espionage throughout the war, had staunch differences and perspectives when it came to post-war negotiations. The United States took a more forgive-and-forget stance as the country and its underground, independence movements had been one of the main reasons the allies were able to wine back Southeast Asia from the Japanese. The U.S. did not wish to dissolve Thailand’s military as it did Japan, but rather, find ways to liberate all areas of the country from Japanese control. The British were more skeptical and called upon potential repercussions and punishments against the nation. Book Siamese Sovereignty: Thailand's Strategy of Political Duality During World War II References 1. Tarling, Nicholas. "Atonement Before Absolution: British Policy Towards Thailand During World War II." Journal of the Siam Society 66 (1978): 22-65. 2. Zakaria, Fareed. From wealth to power: The unusual origins of America's world role. Vol. 82. Princeton University Press, 1999. 3. F.C. Darling, Thailand and the United States, Washington, 1965, p. 41-43. 4. J. Crosby, "The failure of constitutional government in Siam", Asiatic Review, XXXIX (October 1943), 420. 3 J. Crosby, "Observations on a postwar settlement in South-East Asia", International Affairs, XX, 3 (July 1944), 362. 5. Voa, and Voa. “American History: The Rise of US Influence After World War Two.” VOA, VOA, 3 Aug. 2011, learningenglish.voanews.com/a/american-history-the-rise-of-us-influence-after-world-war-two-126735008/116180.html.
July 15, 2020
Episode 20: William McGarry and His Rescue by the Free Thai Movement
"Learning that the superstitious Japanese feared sharks, the ingenious Yanks painted the snout's of their P-40s to represent grinning heads of 'tiger sharks.' The A.V.G. pilots called themselves 'Tiger Sharks' but it was not long before the admiring Chinese troops changed it to 'Flying Tigers' the tiger is regarded as a minor deity in some sections of China." - Source: WAR HEROES, No. 2 | October-December 1942 References 1. Ford, Daniel. Flying Tigers: Claire Chennault and the American Volunteer Group in Burma and China, 1941-1942, www.warbirdforum.com/mcgarryx.htm. 2. Reynolds, E. Bruce. Thailand's secret war: OSS, SOE and the Free Thai underground during World War II. Cambridge university press, 2005. 3. Oliver, Myrna. “William McGarry, 74, of World War II Flying Tigers Fame.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times, 13 Apr. 1990, www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1990-04-13-mn-1245-story.html. 4. “OSS in Asia.” Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, 28 June 2008, www.cia.gov/library/publications/intelligence-history/oss/art09.htm. 5. Raschke, Phil, and Julie M. Collison. “76th Anniversary Salute to the Famous WWII 'Flying Tigers'.” The Suburban Times, 7 Oct. 2017, thesubtimes.com/2017/07/19/76th-anniversary-salute-to-the-famous-wwii-flying-tigers/. 6. Bigfella. “The Air Force Museum, Chiang Mai.” Ride Asia Motorcycle Forums, 8 Nov. 2015, www.rideasia.net/motorcycle-forum/threads/the-air-force-museum-chiang-mai.7486/.
July 13, 2020
Episode 19: How Much of China did Japan Occupy in WW2?
In the late 19th century, as China declined in the face of internal struggles and foreign intrusion, Japan was on the rise. As the world moved on to the 20th century, China’s loss of influence over Korea and the stunning victory of Japan in the Sino-Japanese War confirmed that China was no longer the premier power in the Pacific. With this victory, Japan, the former tributary state to the Chinese Empire, followed the example set by the Western powers and claimed territory from China. They forced China to sign another humiliating unequal treaty (Treaty of Shimonoseki 1895), which ceded Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and the Liaodong Peninsula to the Japanese Empire. This was the beginning, but far from the end of the Japanese conquest in China. This conquest would eventually become one of the most destructive conflicts in world history, engulfing China in a storm of chaos and destruction and causing the deaths of millions and the loss of much of China’s territory. Book Battle of Shanghai: The Prequel to the Rape of Nanking References 1. Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-first Century. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge UP, 2017. Print. 2. Kissinger, Henry. On China. New York: Penguin, 2012. Print. 3. Spence, Jonathan D. The Search for Modern China. New York: Norton, 1990. Print. 4. Taylor, Jay. The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2011. Print.
July 10, 2020
Episode 18: Japanese Use of Poison Gas in World War II
The years leading up to World War II saw an increase in the use of biological and chemical warfare in Japan, spearheaded by Major-General Ishii Shiro. BW most commonly took the form of anthrax, glanders, and plague, while chemical warfare included tear, smoke, and other poison gases. The proliferation of these two tactics in Japan, outlawed by the 1929 Geneva Convention, was enabled by the mechanized nature of the project. Shiro had great factories built in Manchuria and other areas of China. These “factories of death” included the infamous Unit 731 and were developed for research and human experimentation revolving around chemical and biological warfare.
July 6, 2020
Episode 17 Bonus: Three Years and Eight Months of Hong Kong
Eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Imperial Army launched an invasion plan for Southeast Asia, including Hong Kong. Since Hong Kong was a British Colony at the time, soldiers from British colonies including India and Canada fought alongside Chinese guerrilla fighters. However, soldiers defending the city at the time were largely unprepared and Japan claimed its victory within 18 days. During the Christmas of 1941, the governor of Hong Kong, Mark Aitchison Young surrendered Hong Kong and started the 3 years 8 months of the Japanese Imperial Army's occupation of Hong Kong. Civilians were raped and tortured during the occupation. Instead of caring for the citizens' experiences at the end of WWII, people cared about the ownership of Hong Kong as England and China raced to reach the city. The book tells the stories of the Battle for Hong Kong, daily civilian lives, Hong Kong mafia's collaboration with the Japanese Imperial Army, and the POWs camp in Hong Kong during the occupation. Three Years Eight Months: The Forgotten Struggle of Hong Kong's WWII
July 3, 2020
Episode 17: Celebrating Injustice - The Confederate Flag vs. The Yasukuni Shrine
The Confederate flag is a widely known and highly debated symbol in the U.S. To many, the Confederate flag is a shrine to the fallen southern soldiers from the Civil War. Those flying the flag today claim that they do so to honor their ancestors and the freedom and independence they fought for. To others, however, the Confederate flag is associated with the painful history of slavery and the subsequent white supremacist movements that adopted the flag because of their alignment with the values of the Confederacy. Whatever the motives may be, flying the Confederate flag in public has sparked a lot of controversy in America. References Confederate Flag 1. Scott Eric Kaufman (9 July 2015). “What tradition does the Confederate flag represent? Is it slavery, rape, genocide, treason, or all of the above?" Salon. 2. Ta-Nehisi Coates (22 June 2015). "What this Cruel War Was Over." The Atlantic. 3. Coski 2005, pp. 92–94 4. Geoghegan, Tom (August 30, 2013). "Why do People Still Fly the Confederate Flag?" BBC News. Retrieved October 30, 2013. Yasukuni Shrine 1. Nelson, John. "Social Memory as Ritual Practice: Commemorating Spirits of the Military Dead at Yasukuni Shinto Shrine". Journal of Asian Studies 62, 2 (May 2003): 445–467. 2. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1963). Vicissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 36655 3. Pye, Michael: "Religion and Conflict in Japan with Special Reference to Shinto and Yasukuni Shrine". Diogenes 50:3 (2003), S. 45–59.
July 1, 2020
Episode 16: U.S. Pre-War Doubts on the Success of Biological Warfare
After the horrors of what chemical warfare had applied to humans in World War I, several countries took upon matters to discuss about the prohibition to use such measures in war. As one of the leading forces behind the 1925 Geneva Protocol agreement, the United States strongly opposed any usage of biological or chemical warfare. Despite the fact that the U.S. failed to ratify the agreement until the year of 1975, their negative attitude concerning chemical warfare continued all the way up to the outbreak of World War II, when it became evident that some of the participant countries of the war had begun to take measures on both biological and chemical warfare. References 1. https://2009-2017.state.gov/t/isn/4784.htm#treaty 2. National Archives and Records Administration. Box 6 (6) p. 37-39 3. Lee, Nancy. “Introduction to Wang Xuan” in Seeking Justice for Biological Warfare Victims of Unit 731, 2020. 4. Jeans Jr., Roger B. “Alarm in Washington: A Wartime ‘Exposé’ of Japan’s Biological Warfare Program.” Journal of Military History, vol. 71, no. 2, Apr. 2007, pp. 411–439. EBSCOhost, DOI:10.1353/jmh.2007.0126.
June 29, 2020
Episode 15: A Deadly Retreat from Burma
In May 1942, the rainy season in Burma just began to reveal its true color, soaking lands with nightmarish thunderstorms. In the meantime, tens of thousands of soldiers from the Chinese Expeditionary Force were suffering from a disastrous retreat in the jungle. Gu Luo, a soldier serving in the Fifth Army wrote in his diary: “The jungle-covered everything for miles, leaving us deadly thirsty…The soldiers are all in rags and look very gaunt. Everyone is carrying a bag of rice, a water-can, a diesel tin, and on the other hand, a walking-stick…Because we haven’t had any oil for a month, my stools are very hard and my anus has split” Book The Forgotten Theater of WWII of China-Burma-India: The Untold Story of the First Chinese Expeditionary Force References 1. Mitter, Rana. Forgotten Ally: China’s World War II 1937-1945. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013. 2. Chen, C. Peter. World War II Database. Accessed on July 5, 2019. https://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=18 3. Wang Yi Xin Wen. Accessed on July 2, 2019. http://3g.163.com/dy/article/E541MLMJ0525PILS.html 4. Xiao Ming Shi Hua. Sina. Accessed on July 2, 2019. http://k.sina.com.cn/article_5453296053_1450ab1b50010076gt.html
June 26, 2020
Episode 14 Bonus: Free Sample of Unit 731 Audiobook
Unit 731: The Forgotten Asian Auschwitz Under the leadership of Dr. Shiro Isshi, Unit 731 subjected 3,000-250,000 innocent men, women, and children to cruel experiments and medical procedures that were carried out by the brightest medical students and staff that Imperial Japan had to offer. In a bid to develop its own germ warfare capability, the government of Imperial Japan resorted to incredibly deprived and inhumane methods of experimentation, like infecting prisoners with virulent strains of anthrax, plague, cholera, and other diseases. These prisoners were often subject to excruciating vivisections without the use of anesthesia in order to observe the real-time effects of these deadly diseases. Perhaps the most shocking development after the war was that the perpetrators of this heinous crime against humanity have largely escaped persecution unlike their Nazi counterparts in Europe. In a cowardly attempt to escape persecution by the Soviets, Dr. Shiro Isshi and his staff were able to trade the information obtained from their experiments with the Americans in return for immunity in the Tokyo Trials.
June 25, 2020
Episode 14: The Vietnamese Boat People: A Story of Trials and Tribulations
The Vietnamese Boat People were a series of refugees that fled Communist Vietnam in a mass exodus occurring in 1954, and again from 1975-1992. In 1954, the Northern Vietnamese fled to Southern Vietnam to escape the corrupt and violent Viet Minh regime. Under the Viet Minh, anyone deemed an enemy was prosecuted under the full extent of the law: this included Catholics, intellectuals, landowners, and generally anyone that disobeyed the regime. References 1. Vo, Nghia M. The Vietnamese Boat People, 1954 and 1975-1992. McFarland & Co., 2006. 2. Caplan, Nathan S., et al. Children of the Boat People: a Study of Educational Success. University of Michigan Press, 1991. 3. “Vietnam War.” HistoryNet, www.historynet.com/vietnam-war. 4. “Resources.” PROJECT YELLOW DRESS, www.projectyellowdress.com/resources.
June 22, 2020
Episode 13: The Formation of French Indochina
Pre-colonized Vietnam was split into three states, Cochinchina, Annam, and Tonkin. Cochinchina covered the most southern part of Vietnam in which its primary city was Saigon. Annam was the central state of Vietnam where the ancient capital of Vietnam, Hue, was located. Tonkin was the most northern region where its main city was Hanoi. The first European arrival to Indochina, which was made up of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, began with Portuguese and Dutch missionaries during the 16th and 17th centuries, respectively. These missionaries’ main objective was to start up trading posts along the Vietnamese coast. Book The Forgotten Theater of WWII of China-Burma-India References 1. "Chapter 1 The French in Indochina - Digital History." http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/teachers/lesson_plans/pdfs/unit12_1.pdf. Accessed 9 Sep. 2019. 2. Dommen, Arthur J. (2001). The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans: nationalism and communism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 4-18. 3. Goscha, Christopher E. (2016). Vietnam: A New History. Basic Books: New York, p. 88. "Chapter 1 The French in Indochina - Digital History."
June 19, 2020
Episode 12: The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial - Unearthing Biological Warfare in WWII
The west often dismissed the Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial as "Communist Propaganda." However, it was the first time the scientists from the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department" of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) came forward with the crimes they committed during World War 2. To confuse others about what their mission is, they frequently use the name, "Water Supply and Prophylaxis Administration of the Kwantung Army," or "Hippo-Epizootic Administration of the Kwantung Army." Book The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial - Unearthing Biological Warfare in WWII
June 15, 2020
Episode 11: Jews in Shanghai during WW2
In the spring of 1938, a month after the annexation of Austria to Germany, the Anschluss, Austrian Jews were deported to Dachau and Buchenwald Concentration Camps. At the time, there were about 185,000 Jews in Austria, and they had two choices, either flee the country or be deported to the Camps. However, it was not an easy task for most as the Nazis required Jews exiting the country to hold an entry visa to the country. Ho Feng-Shan was the consul-general in Vienna during this dark period. He went against his superior’s order and issued visas for the Jews looking to escape. Book Battle of Shanghai: The Prequel to the Rape of Nanking References https://archives.jdc.org/topic-guides/refuge-in-shanghai-1938-1953/ https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1111&context=phr https://www.thedailybeast.com/how-shanghai-saved-20000-jews-from-the-nazis https://books.google.com/books?id=u4I2DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA295&dq=%22June+1938%22+%221906%22+%22Feng-Shan%22#v=onepage&q=%22June%201938%22%20%221906%22%20%22Feng-Shan%22&f=false https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ho_Feng-Shan#cite_note-:0-4 https://www.yadvashem.org/righteous/stories/ho.html http://il.china-embassy.org/eng/xwdt/t451331.htm http://en.people.cn/200511/11/eng20051111_220515.html https://theculturetrip.com/asia/china/articles/a-brief-history-of-hongkou-district-in-shanghai/ https://www.hmd.org.uk/resource/feng-shan-ho/ https://www.latimes.com/travel/la-tr-shanghai-jews-20171120-story.html https://www.military-history.org/articles/war-zone-city-of-terror-the-japanese-takeover-of-shanghai.htm
June 12, 2020
Episode 10: Taiwanese Experience of WW2
Taiwanese had faced the Second World War from many different angles, as Taiwan had been under Japanese occupation for around four decades when the Second Sino-Japanese War was starting up, which influenced the Taiwanese to be more supportive of Japanese cause. Another angle represented were Taiwanese who supported the Chinese as many Taiwanese were living in China at the time after escaping the Japanese invasion and displayed heavy anti-Japanese sentiments. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Season 1 Episode 10: Taiwanese Experience of WW2. Book Taiwan, the Israel of the East: How China, Japan, the United States Influenced the Forming of a New Nation
June 8, 2020
Episode 09: Moving KMT to Taiwan
Taiwan was a valuable source for economic and agricultural production for the Japanese, and when it was turned over to the Chinese, it was used to increase agricultural production rates. Since the Cairo Conference in 1943, Taiwan and the Penghu Islands were already decided to be given to China following the surrender of Japan. Before moving the Nationalist Government leaders, a state government was already established over Taiwan. As the Communists began claiming the advantage over the Nationalists military, Nationalist officials and many Nationalist supporters began to take refuge in Taiwan and establish their new government in Taiwan. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 9: Moving KMT to Taiwan. Book Taiwan, the Israel of the East: How China, Japan, the United States Influenced the Forming of a New Nation
June 5, 2020
Episode 08: Three Examples of Martial Law Imposed on US Soil
With cases of coronavirus spreading in the United States, the idea of martial law is one of the measures considered to enforce social distance as a public safety measure. Under martial law, civil governments would be overridden by the military. It should only be used as a last resort. Only the president has the power to go into martial law on a federal level. On a state level, the governor has the right to impose martial law within the border of the state. Many of these incidents were to protect citizens against foreign attacks, while some were humanitarian efforts for public safety. Here are the three times the United States impose martial law over its citizens. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 8: Three Examples of Martial Law Imposed on US Soil. References 1. "Looting Claims Against the U.S. Army Following the 1906 Earthquake". Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved March 18, 2020. 2. Nolte, Carl (May 27, 2007). "Sam Kagel -- arbitrator in major labor disputes (obit)". SF Gate. Retrieved March 18, 2020. 3. "Martial law in Hawaii". Densho Encyclopedia, Retrieved March 18, 2020
June 1, 2020
Episode 07: Triads in HK and the Making of Modern Chinese History
Started on June 9th, 2019, protests in Hong Kong had sustained almost a year. Shockingly, what started as a protest against an extradition bill continued well into weeks after the bill was canceled. The involvement of triads in Hong Kong in the protest has also attracted international news. During the latest protests, triad members with white shirts with swords and sticks chasing protesters look as if they are characters in a Kung Fu movie from Hollywood. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 7: Triads in HK and the Making of Modern Chinese History. Book 1. Three Years Eight Months: The Forgotten Struggle of Hong Kong's WWII References 1. https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/china-history/guan-yu.htm 2. https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/triad-pro-democracy-protesters-hong-kong-1.5221382 3. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/24/world/asia/hong-kong-triads-protests.html 4. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-crime/article/2067890/brief-history-hong-kongs-triad-gangs 5. https://unitedgangs.com/14k-triad/ 6. https://www.scmp.com/article/69070/sun-yee-heads-list-57-triads
May 29, 2020
Episode 06: Konoe, Who Could've Prevented the Attack of Pearl Harbor
During the summer of 1941, Prince Konoe, then Prime Minister of Japan, made several attempts through Ambassador Grew to improve relations with the United States. On August 18th, 1941, Foreign Minister Toyoda secretly submitted a proposal to Ambassador Grew, suggesting that Prince Konoe and President Roosevelt meet. Konoe offered to go to Honolulu, an unprecedented step in Japanese history. According to Ambassador Grew, Konoe was fully aware of the objections to this move in certain parts of his country. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 6: Konoe, Who Could've Prevented the Attack of Pearl Harbor. Book Memoir by Prince Konoe: The Secret Negotiations Between Japan and the United States Before Pearl Harbor References 1. https://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=178 2. https://www.ndl.go.jp/portrait/e/datas/81.html
May 25, 2020
Episode 05: Background of Unit 731
Unit 731 had eight divisions. Division 1: Bacteriological research. Division 2: Warfare Research and field experiments. Division 3: Water Filter Production. Division 4: Bacteria Mass production and Storage. Division 5: Educational Division. Division 6: Supplies Division. Division 7: General Affairs. Division 8: Clinical Diagnosis. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 5: Background of Unit 731. Book Series on Unit 731 1. Unit 731: The Forgotten Asian Auschwitz 2. The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial 3. Marutas of Unit 731 4. Ishii Shiro: Josef Mengele of the East 5. Seeking Justice for Biological Warfare Victims of Unit 731 References 1. https://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=537 2. http://www.lit.osaka-cu.ac.jp/user/tsuchiya/gyoseki/presentation/UNESCOkumamoto07.html 3. http://en.people.cn/n/2015/0828/c90000-8943204.html 4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030100578.html 5. http://articles.latimes.com/2004/sep/19/news/adfg-poison19 6. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/jul/31/japan.jonathanwatts
May 22, 2020
Episode 04: Personnel of Unit 731
Shiro Ishii came up with the idea of having Unit 731 built to keep up with the West since westerns were believed to be developing their own weapons of biological warfare. The Japanese government heavily invested in the Unit 731 facility in order for it to function fully. Masaji Kitano was a commanding officer of Unit 731. Another member of Unit 731 was Yoshimura Hisato, who was a physiologist. In addition, Yasuji Kaneko is also one of the alleged members of Unit 731. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 4: Personnel of Unit 731. Book Series on Unit 731 1. Unit 731: The Forgotten Asian Auschwitz 2. The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial 3. Marutas of Unit 731 4. Ishii Shiro: Josef Mengele of the East 5. Seeking Justice for Biological Warfare Victims of Unit 731 References 1. https://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=537 2. http://www.lit.osaka-cu.ac.jp/user/tsuchiya/gyoseki/presentation/UNESCOkumamoto07.html 3. http://en.people.cn/n/2015/0828/c90000-8943204.html 4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030100578.html 5. http://articles.latimes.com/2004/sep/19/news/adfg-poison19 6. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/jul/31/japan.jonathanwatts
May 18, 2020
Episode 03: Russian Victims of Unit 731
In 1936, the Japanese built Unit 731 —the administrative center of the top-secret biological warfare project of the Imperial Japanese Army — in the isolated Pingfang District of the city of Harbin in Manchuria. At the time, Harbin was a city with a large Russian minority population, and writer Morimura Seiichi has hypothesized that of the 3,000 prisoners experimented on at Unit 731, up to 30% were Russian. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 3: Russian Victims of Unit 731. Book Series on Unit 731 1. Unit 731: The Forgotten Asian Auschwitz 2. The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial 3. Marutas of Unit 731 4. Ishii Shiro: Josef Mengele of the East 5. Seeking Justice for Biological Warfare Victims of Unit 731 References 1. Clurman, Irene, and Dan Ben-Canaan. “A Brief History of the Jews of Harbin: How a Manchurian Fishing Village Became a Railroad Town and a Haven for Jews.” JewishGen KehilaLinks, JewishGen, 2007, kehilalinks.jewishgen.org/harbin/Brief_History.htm. 2. Dreyer, Jacob. “Ghost Town: Searching for Remnants of Russia in the Chinese City of Harbin.” The Calvert Journal, 20 Aug. 2014, www.calvertjournal.com/opinion/show/3018/russia-china-harbin-legacy. 3. Gold, Hal. Unit 731 Testimony. Tuttle Publishing, 2011. 4. Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945 and the American Cover-Up. Routledge, 2002. 5. Kristof, Nicholas D. “Unmasking Horror—A Special Report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 17 Mar. 1995, mobile.nytimes.com/1995/03/17/world/unmasking-horror-a-special-report-japan-confronting-gruesome-war-atrocity.html. 6. Lisenko, Alexander. “Harbin—A Russian Enclave in Manchuria.” The Orthodox Vision, 2006, pp. 4–10. 7. McCurry, Justin. “Unit 731: Japan Discloses Details of Notorious Chemical Warfare Division.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 17 Apr. 2018, www.theguardian.com/world/2018/apr/17/japan-unit-731-imperial-army-second-world-war. 8. Morimura, Seiichi. The Devil’s Gluttony. Kobunsha, 1981. 9. Nie, Jing-Bao. “The West’s Dismissal of the Khabarovsk Trial as ‘Communist Propaganda’: Ideology, Evidence and International Bioethics.” Journal of Bioethical Inquiry, vol. 1, no. 1, Apr. 2004, pp. 32–42., doi:10.1007/bf02448905. 10. Pawlowicz, Rachel, and Walter E. Grunden. “Teaching Atrocities: The Holocaust and Unit 731 in the Secondary School Curriculum.” The History Teacher, vol. 48, no. 2, Feb. 2015, pp. 271–294., www.societyforhistoryeducation.org/F15Preview.html.
May 15, 2020
Episode 02: Forced Pregnancy of Unit 731
Unit 731 was a biological and chemical weapons research and development unit of the Japanese Army. It operated covertly for ten years since 1935 in Harbin, China, and was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes committed by Imperial Japan, due to its extensive use of lethal human experimentation. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 2: Forced Pregnancy of Unit 731. Book Series on Unit 731 1. Unit 731: The Forgotten Asian Auschwitz 2. The Khabarovsk War Crimes Trial 3. Marutas of Unit 731 4. Ishii Shiro: Josef Mengele of the East 5. Seeking Justice for Biological Warfare Victims of Unit 731 References: 1. https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~kann20c/classweb/dw2/page1.html 2. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5703193/True-story-Japans-WWII-human-experiments-Unit-731.html 3. http://english.cntv.cn/2015/08/13/VIDE1439466249542418.shtml
May 11, 2020
Episode 01: Biological Warfare - The Deadlier Alternative to Nuclear Warfare
What did Bill Gates warn us about bioweapon? What is biological warfare? And the testimony of past biological warfare in the Pacific Asia War. Welcome to Forgotten History of Pacific Asia War Podcast Episode 1: Biological Warfare - The Deadlier Alternative to Nuclear Warfare.
May 9, 2020